Questions tagged [ipa]

International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA)

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When is it OK to pronounced a voiced th like a /d/ instead of a /ð/?

As I learned in Do native speakers really always pronounce the voiced th as a /ð/? native speakers sometimes pronounce the voiced th as a /d/ instead of a /ð/ like in the words "the", &...
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Do native speakers really always pronounce the voiced th as a /ð/? [closed]

In Can we pronounce the 'th' sound as a d? one answer explained that native speakers often don't pronounce the voiced th excactly like how it ideally should sound. What I have noticed over ...
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Phonetic symbol - superscript h in Which [duplicate]

Q1) What is the meaning of the small h (superscript h) in the phonetic symbols of which shown in Collins? ʰwɪ̠tʃ the small h means 'complete silence' (= just ignore h) the small h means 'pronounce ...
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General American: very as / ˈvɛɹi / or / ˈveɹi /, more as / ˈmɔɹ / or / ˈmoɹ /, and chair as / t͡ʃɛəɹ / or / t͡ʃeəɹ / [duplicate]

I read this comment on Youtube. is it possible that the sound / ɹ / tends to close the vowels that precede it? For example, at least to me, [very] / ˈvɛɹi / sounds more like / ˈveɹi /, [more] / ˈmɔɹ /...
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I pronounce initial R's with my upper teeth on the very bottom of my inside lower lip. Not rhotic. What's the IPA for this?

The Wikipedia page (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pronunciation_of_English_/r/) doesn't mention an option for pronouncing R where the upper teeth are really, really at the bottom of the inside lower ...
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pronunciation of the 'ous' in dangerous

When I look up the word dangerous, the IPA spellings almost always show up as /ˈdānj(ə)rəs/ Maybe it's regional (Southern Ontario), but I don't encounter that pronunciation lot. And I probably use it ...
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Psilocybin in the IPA format?

I am trying to put the word "psilocybin" into the IPA so I can create a custom dictionary for a transcription project. Google gives the IPA format as: ˌsʌɪlə(ʊ)ˈsʌɪbɪn However that sounds ...
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1 answer
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Is the underlying form of "n" /n/ or /ŋ/ in words ending in -nk?

There are lots of words ending in -nk in Modern English. In (almost) all those words, the -nk is pronounced [-ŋk]. My understanding is that the "n" in spelling represented [n] originally but ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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What is the technical description of the pronunciation of the "t" in "countdown"?

I've looked up the pronunciation of "countdown" in a few different dictionaries and they all give it as some variation of /ˈkaʊntˌdaʊn/. However, the "t" is clearly not pronounced ...
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Primary and secondary stress in IPA transcriptions on Cambridge Dictionary when two words are involved

I am trying to understand IPA transcriptions in https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/ when two words are involved. In particular, their rationale for changing some stresses, compared to the stresses in ...
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What does a bracketed sound mean in the IPA transcription of a word?

I noticed that some words have a bracketed sound in their transcriptions in some dictionaries, for example, see the following from Lexico: locate - /lə(ʊ)ˈkeɪt/ open - /ˈəʊp(ə)n/ (I assume here the ...
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2 answers
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Is the short-e pronounced as [e] or [ɛ] in standard English? [duplicate]

In many English dictionaries, I saw the phonetic symbol of short-e is /e/ such as in bed (/bed/). However, I'm taught that the pronunciation of that is /ɛ/. Which one is right in standard English? ...
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Are English diphthongs nasalized before nasals?

I learned that vowels are often nasalized before nasals (Nasalization). It means that the velum is lowered when the vowel is produced in the mouth and most of the air comes out through nose. For ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What's the difference between /t̬/ and /ɾ/ in American English?

I have learned that the t between vowels in American English is usually an alveolar flap, represented by /ɾ/, which is the voiced counterpart of the usual /t/. Cambridge Online Dictionary gives /ˈbet̬....
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the difference between [ɐ] and [ʌ]?

In a similar question which asks the difference between /ə/ and /ʌ/, I learned that /ʌ/ occurs in stressed syllables. Now there is another similar vowel sound: /ɐ/ which also occurs in stressed ...
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19 votes
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What is the difference between /ʌɪ/ and /aɪ/ in English?

Is there any difference between the two diphthongs in English IPA transcriptions? If I search a word in the Cambridge dictionary, it gives /aɪ/ for both UK English and US English. For example, the ...
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1 vote
4 answers
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"Floh-ree-dah" rather than "Flor-duh"

I am writing an effigy poem homaging Ponce De Leon, "discoverer" of La Florida in 1513 and though it is being written in English (Early modern English), I am very adamant on having "...
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How to pronounce IPA "/rɑːp/"? (Old English)

I'm making a video which includes some information about the ancient Saxon and Norman political organization of the English county of Sussex. One thing I am stuck on is the Old English pronunciation ...
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1 answer
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Does /ɛ/ have more than one sound?

As a non-native speaker, I hear /ɛ/ as two different sounds depending on the word. The first sound seems to occur in words such as bet and get and is closer to an /æ/ sound, while the second one ...
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How would you transcribe and/or describe this vowel?

I'm analyzing the /æ/ vowel sound (also known as 'short A') found in words like cat, dad, or man. I am particularly interested in how that sound is realized in different dialects of American English ...
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What is the difference between /a/ and /æ/?

I don't quite understand the difference between /a/ and /æ/. Google gives the transcription for 'add' as /ad/, while Wiktionary returns /æd/. Are these sounds actually distinct or is this just two ...
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What is the difference between /ʊ/ and /ʌ/ in British English?

/ʌ/ cut, hut, bun, nothing, love, enough, flood, does /ʊ/ put, soot, foot, good, look, cook To me the ʌ is a more short, low front (unrounded?) vowel, but the vowel /ʊ/ which sounds like "uh" is a ...
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Why don't you [tʃʊ]

What phonological processes take place in the pronunciation of Why don't you as as just [tʃʊ]?
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Why is [ɚ] used instead of [əɹ] in IPA phonetic transcriptions of English words?

Is there any pronunciation difference between both? Shouldn't IPA use one symbol per phonem/allophone? Curiously, this happens with the schwa, but not with "true" vowels, eg the A in car [kɑɹ].
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I am looking for a reverse API tool

I'm looking for a tool for write the sound of the word (phonetic) and have all the words that have that sound. It's very usefull when people don't use the good sounds or to know what a native speaker ...
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1 answer
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Is the word "I'm" pronounced like /əm/, instead of /aɪm/, when it is unstressed? [closed]

Is the word "I'm" pronounced like /ʌm/ or /əm/, instead of /aɪm/, when it is unstressed?
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Transcription and pronunciation of the 'un-' prefix in General American English

What's the correct transcription and pronunciation of the 'un-' prefix in General American English? Cambridge Online dictionary provides the following transcription: /ʌn/ It's the same in words with ...
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How do you pronounce the word Shaman?

I found 2 American pronunciation samples on Forvo, and they said /ˈʃæmən/ (audio), I wonder if British people say /ˈʃeɪmən/ (audio), or not? Could you please tell me something about that?
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IPA confusion for 'Aegis'

Merriam-Webster says: \ˈē-jəs \ or \ˈā-jəs\ Cambridge says: /ˈiː.dʒɪs/ for US Oxfor says: /ˈiːdʒɪs/ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aegis https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/...
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Reason behind Oxford Dictionaries's IPA transcription?

For some reason or another, I was looking at the Oxford Dictionaries definition for ailurophile (cat-lover). Then I noticed that, underneath its Pronunciation header, it gives the IPA transcript as ...
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Connected speech resources

I am very interested in British pronunciation, so I am looking for resources about connected speech and IPA in general. The ideal would be a book with the transcription of dialogues or just ...
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Difference between /əʳ/ and /ɚ/

Consider the word 'future.' Cambridge Dictionary shows the transcriptions /ˈfjuːtʃəʳ/ and /ˈfjuːtʃɚ/. Are they different?
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The inconsistent long i sound in English [duplicate]

As a phonics teacher, I have long had a problem with finding the right explanation to my students about an inconsistent sound. Hope someone has the explanation to it here. The long i sound in ...
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What's the difference between the AA (ɑ) and AO (ɔ) sound?

I'm working with the CMU pronunciation dictionary and I can't comfortably say I can understand what difference in sound they're trying to indicate by splitting AA and AO into different phonemes. ...
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How to pronounce "urethra"?

I'm confused how to pronounce "urethra". I looked up in the dictionary, it's | jʊˈriːθrə |. Shouldn't it be pronounced "yu-ri-ther"? Many YouTube videos pronounced it "yu-ri-thra".
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IPA syllable breaks

When using IPA, I am aware that <.> (full stop) represents a syllable break. However, I have also read that a <-> (hyphen) can also be used? Is this correct? If so, is it simply a matter of ...
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Different pronunciations of "-ead"/"-ed"/"-aid" words

I find that American/British English dialects tend to pronounce words like "bed", "red", "dead", "bred", "said", etc. with the exact same vowel sound: the IPA ɛ vowel (- and so this question may seem ...
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Why is "thank you" pronounced as /θaŋ kjuː/ ("thang-Q")?

I would like to know how native speakers say “thank you”. Do they pronounce it /θaŋk juː/ or /θaŋ kjuː/? I am Asian and I was taught in school to say /θaŋ kjuː/ but teachers didn't explain the ...
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Why are "fun" and "hulk" phonetically transcribed with the same vowel but pronounced differently?

I see many words in English have the same phonetics but I don't know why they sound different. It means if we read the phonetics and pronounce, it will be wrong. Here are the examples. fun : /fʌn/ ...
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Can someone help me with the transcription of the word ´mother´? (IPA)

I am really not sure whether the word ´mother´ should be transcribed like this: ´mʌðə´ or like this ´mɒðə´. In my opinion, the second one sounds better. The word mother is similarly pronounced as for ...
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What's the lowered "single quote" lookalike marking in phonetic symbols

I understand that the normal "single quote" marking indicates stress, but what about the lowered one?
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Where can i find the IPA sounds with example words and their pronunciation?

I want to learn the IPA but all the websites i found are incomplete. For example: it has the sounds chart but doesn't have example words (with pronunciation), and sometimes it doesn't even have the ...
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Can the schwa sound predict spelling?

More specifically, I was wondering whether the schwa sound can predict which vowel to use in spelling? For instance, does the schwa sound predict "a" spelling more than "e" spelling? I noticed that ...
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Different /ə/ pronunciation at the end of a word; for example, in "phenomena"

Sorry for my English but I'm a self-taught beginner. That's why I had been looking at the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) with high hopes until I saw phenomenon’s plural form. In the singular, ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Should I pronounce the singular "Irishman" and the plural "Irishmen" identically?

Can someone tell me how to pronounce the following: Irishman/Irishmen I have read carefully, according to the online Oxford Living Dictionaries, the pronunciation of words like Irishman/Irishmen: ...
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3 votes
2 answers
574 views

A syllable-initial consonant is semi-vowelized before a semivowel?

In English, a syllable-initial consonant is semi-vowelized before a semivowel? For example, what's the IPA pronunciation of the word music? /mjuzɪk/ or /mʲuzɪk/
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Difference between /ʌ/ and /ə/ in English IPA

If someone who is a linguistics expert could explain this to me in a way I can understand, I'd really appreciate it. I get that /ʌ/ is used on stressed vowels and /ə/ on reduced vowels, but they sound ...
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Are [ɪ] and [i] are allophones of the same phoneme in English? [closed]

I am leaning towards no, but would like confirmation and perhaps an example to illustrate.
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What is the IPA of the throat clearing ch sound?

Is there a standard IPA equivalent of the gargle-ish sound you make when you clear phlegm out of your throat, like when you pronounce 'Achmed', where the 'ch' is the 'phlegm' sound?
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How to calculate number of syllables in a word using only the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) spelling?

I want to write an algorithm to calculate the number of syllables in a word. This process is an automated one that will be run on an entire dictionary so manually counting the number of breaths, chin ...