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Questions tagged [ipa]

International Phonetic Alphabet(IPA)

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Anyone else with this place of articulation of their rhotic sound? [duplicate]

As my question implies, I have an unusual manner of articulation for my rhotic sound, and I wonder if anyone else shares it: my rhotic sound is formed by bringing my bottom lip up so that my top teeth ...
Kyle Colbourne's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
33 views

What's the difference between ɔ & ɒ? [duplicate]

What is the difference between ɔ and ɒ? Would bɔl and bɒl both be "ball"? (I'm talking about in standard American English.) I saw this similar question but it hasn't had any answers for ...
jastako's user avatar
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2 answers
751 views

Merriam Webster vs Oxford Languages Dictionary phonetic transcriptions of 'man'

I've noticed that in MW words "now" and "man" have the same middle sound (ˈnau̇ vs ˈman), but in Oxford dictionary these two words have two different sounds (naʊ vs mæn). So which ...
ExP's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
247 views

Pronunciation difference between "night rate" and "nitrate"

On English allophones on Wikipedia, there is an example of the pronunciation differences between "night rate" and "nitrate", Night rate: unreleased [ˈnʌɪt̚.ɹʷeɪt̚] (without a word ...
Qian's user avatar
  • 121
4 votes
1 answer
646 views

How does one show in IPA that the first sound in "get" and "got" is different?

So one has that "get" /ɡɛt/ and "got" /ɡɒt/ are a minimal pair, for it's only the vocalic phoneme which distinguishes them. However, the first sound is not pronounced/articulated ...
DanielC's user avatar
  • 189
0 votes
3 answers
788 views

In IPA transcription, what is the difference between “ɪ”, "i", “i:”?

What is the difference between “ɪ”, "i", “i:”? Are these two same “ɪ”, "i" and won't be wrong if interchanged while transcripting? For example: Is it correct to write either /ʃɪp/ ...
Dia's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
274 views

Pronunciation of Emma and Emma's

According to Wiktionary, Emma is pronounced as /ˈɛmə/ but I tend to hear it sounding more like /ˈɛmɑː/. However, when it comes to pronouncing Emma's, I hear it like /ˈɛməz/ and I hear a clear schwa ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
257 views

Why does Oxford American English dictionary use "y" symbol instead of "j"

Oxford American English dictionary uses "y" symbol instead of "j" in their pronunciation guide. Most other dictionaries use j. So are there any differences between the 2 symbols or ...
Nam N's user avatar
  • 65
10 votes
4 answers
491 views

Do any speakers have contrastive vowel qualities for the NURSE and lettER sets?

John Wells’ lexical sets are usually useful classifications for determining differences in the realizations of vowels across English accents. Two of the sets are the NURSE set, referring to a stressed ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
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1 answer
383 views

L-epenthesis in “both” and other words

I’m a younger speaker from Chicago with some version of a General American accent. I’ve noticed that a small number of words seem to have a nonstandard pronunciation with an inserted lateral sound, ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
94 views

Rounding of the START and PALM vowels

I’m a younger speaker from Chicago with a relatively standard General American accent. I have noticed that the vowels in the words “start” and “palm” sound like they have some lip rounding in my ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
  • 890
5 votes
1 answer
288 views

Possibility of a near-cure or peer-pure vowel merger in American English

I am a young speaker from Chicago with, I think, a relatively nonspecific General American accent. I’ve noticed something interesting with the vowels in the NEAR and CURE sets. These vowels can be ...
Graham H.'s user avatar
  • 890
3 votes
2 answers
330 views

Do British and American English speakers pronounce /ɪ/ differently?

I'm not a native speaker of English, but I'm pretty fluent in Received Pronunciation. I've recently noticed that the way Americans make the sound /ɪ/ is different from the way I, and RP speakers in ...
Ahmad Nourallah's user avatar
12 votes
3 answers
1k views

Is /ʌ/ really a stressed schwa, appearing only in stressed syllables?

If /ʌ/ occurs only in stressed syllables, why does punctilious /pʌŋkˈtɪliəs/ have it in an unstressed syllable? Same with upbraid /ʌpˈbreɪd/.
Movies Sea's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
230 views

When is it OK to pronounced a voiced th like a /d/ instead of a /ð/?

As I learned in Do native speakers really always pronounce the voiced th as a /ð/? native speakers sometimes pronounce the voiced th as a /d/ instead of a /ð/ like in the words "the", &...
tempdev nova's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
155 views

Do native speakers really always pronounce the voiced th as a /ð/? [closed]

In Can we pronounce the 'th' sound as a d? one answer explained that native speakers often don't pronounce the voiced th excactly like how it ideally should sound. What I have noticed over ...
tempdev nova's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
447 views

Phonetic symbol - superscript h in Which [duplicate]

Q1) What is the meaning of the small h (superscript h) in the phonetic symbols of which shown in Collins? ʰwɪ̠tʃ the small h means 'complete silence' (= just ignore h) the small h means 'pronounce ...
imida k's user avatar
  • 253
2 votes
0 answers
83 views

General American: very as / ˈvɛɹi / or / ˈveɹi /, more as / ˈmɔɹ / or / ˈmoɹ /, and chair as / t͡ʃɛəɹ / or / t͡ʃeəɹ / [duplicate]

I read this comment on Youtube. is it possible that the sound / ɹ / tends to close the vowels that precede it? For example, at least to me, [very] / ˈvɛɹi / sounds more like / ˈveɹi /, [more] / ˈmɔɹ /...
MagTun's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
362 views

I pronounce initial R's with my upper teeth on the very bottom of my inside lower lip. Not rhotic. What's the IPA for this?

The Wikipedia page "Pronunciation of English /r/" doesn't mention an option for pronouncing R where the upper teeth are really, really at the bottom of the inside lower lip, practically ...
peisander's user avatar
  • 305
-1 votes
1 answer
140 views

pronunciation of the 'ous' in dangerous

When I look up the word dangerous, the IPA spellings almost always show up as /ˈdānj(ə)rəs/ Maybe it's regional (Southern Ontario), but I don't encounter that pronunciation lot. And I probably use it ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
795 views

Is the underlying form of "n" /n/ or /ŋ/ in words ending in -nk?

There are lots of words ending in -nk in Modern English. In (almost) all those words, the -nk is pronounced [-ŋk]. My understanding is that the "n" in spelling represented [n] originally but ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
165 views

What is the technical description of the pronunciation of the "t" in "countdown"?

I've looked up the pronunciation of "countdown" in a few different dictionaries and they all give it as some variation of /ˈkaʊntˌdaʊn/. However, the "t" is clearly not pronounced ...
CJ Dennis's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
288 views

Primary and secondary stress in IPA transcriptions on Cambridge Dictionary when two words are involved

I am trying to understand IPA transcriptions in https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/ when two words are involved. In particular, their rationale for changing some stresses, compared to the stresses in ...
David Robert Jones's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
364 views

What does a bracketed sound mean in the IPA transcription of a word?

I noticed that some words have a bracketed sound in their transcriptions in some dictionaries, for example, see the following from Lexico: locate - /lə(ʊ)ˈkeɪt/ open - /ˈəʊp(ə)n/ (I assume here the ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
735 views

Is the short-e pronounced as [e] or [ɛ] in standard English? [duplicate]

In many English dictionaries, I saw the phonetic symbol of short-e is /e/ such as in bed (/bed/). However, I'm taught that the pronunciation of that is /ɛ/. Which one is right in standard English? ...
C.K.'s user avatar
  • 149
2 votes
1 answer
406 views

Opposition between the LOT vowel and the STRUT vowel

I've noticed that some UK accents have the LOT vowel in words like nothing, none or one, whereas others have the STRUT vowel. The Lexico and Cambridge online dictionaries only give the STRUT ...
Ethelred's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
770 views

Are English diphthongs nasalized before nasals?

I learned that vowels are often nasalized before nasals (Nasalization). It means that the velum is lowered when the vowel is produced in the mouth and most of the air comes out through nose. For ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
1k views

What's the difference between /t̬/ and /ɾ/ in American English?

I have learned that the t between vowels in American English is usually an alveolar flap, represented by /ɾ/, which is the voiced counterpart of the usual /t/. Cambridge Online Dictionary gives /ˈbet̬....
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
2k views

What is the difference between [ɐ] and [ʌ]?

In a similar question which asks the difference between /ə/ and /ʌ/, I learned that /ʌ/ occurs in stressed syllables. Now there is another similar vowel sound: /ɐ/ which also occurs in stressed ...
user avatar
20 votes
3 answers
6k views

What is the difference between /ʌɪ/ and /aɪ/ in English?

Is there any difference between the two diphthongs in English IPA transcriptions? If I search a word in the Cambridge dictionary, it gives /aɪ/ for both UK English and US English. For example, the ...
user avatar
1 vote
4 answers
228 views

"Floh-ree-dah" rather than "Flor-duh"

I am writing an effigy poem homaging Ponce De Leon, "discoverer" of La Florida in 1513 and though it is being written in English (Early modern English), I am very adamant on having "...
Tom O' Bedlam's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
812 views

How to pronounce IPA "/rɑːp/"? (Old English)

I'm making a video which includes some information about the ancient Saxon and Norman political organization of the English county of Sussex. One thing I am stuck on is the Old English pronunciation ...
Cyberherbalist's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
267 views

Does /ɛ/ have more than one sound?

As a non-native speaker, I hear /ɛ/ as two different sounds depending on the word. The first sound seems to occur in words such as bet and get and is closer to an /æ/ sound, while the second one ...
Fabrik's user avatar
  • 131
5 votes
1 answer
249 views

How would you transcribe and/or describe this vowel?

I'm analyzing the /æ/ vowel sound (also known as 'short A') found in words like cat, dad, or man. I am particularly interested in how that sound is realized in different dialects of American English ...
kriskarett's user avatar
4 votes
5 answers
6k views

What is the difference between /a/ and /æ/?

I don't quite understand the difference between /a/ and /æ/. Google gives the transcription for 'add' as /ad/, while Wiktionary returns /æd/. Are these sounds actually distinct or is this just two ...
John Doe's user avatar
6 votes
2 answers
3k views

What is the difference between /ʊ/ and /ʌ/ in British English?

/ʌ/ cut, hut, bun, nothing, love, enough, flood, does /ʊ/ put, soot, foot, good, look, cook To me the ʌ is a more short, low front (unrounded?) vowel, but the vowel /ʊ/ which sounds like "uh" is a ...
mrcurious's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
72 views

Why don't you [tʃʊ]

What phonological processes take place in the pronunciation of Why don't you as as just [tʃʊ]?
GJC's user avatar
  • 2,509
3 votes
1 answer
659 views

Why is [ɚ] used instead of [əɹ] in IPA phonetic transcriptions of English words?

Is there any pronunciation difference between both? Shouldn't IPA use one symbol per phonem/allophone? Curiously, this happens with the schwa, but not with "true" vowels, eg the A in car [kɑɹ].
Alan Evangelista's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
102 views

I am looking for a reverse API tool

I'm looking for a tool for write the sound of the word (phonetic) and have all the words that have that sound. It's very usefull when people don't use the good sounds or to know what a native speaker ...
Frédéric Roy's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
190 views

Is the word "I'm" pronounced like /əm/, instead of /aɪm/, when it is unstressed? [closed]

Is the word "I'm" pronounced like /ʌm/ or /əm/, instead of /aɪm/, when it is unstressed?
Edinburgh1's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
433 views

Transcription and pronunciation of the 'un-' prefix in General American English

What's the correct transcription and pronunciation of the 'un-' prefix in General American English? Cambridge Online dictionary provides the following transcription: /ʌn/ It's the same in words with ...
Irina's user avatar
  • 142
2 votes
2 answers
3k views

How do you pronounce the word Shaman?

I found 2 American pronunciation samples on Forvo, and they said /ˈʃæmən/ (audio), I wonder if British people say /ˈʃeɪmən/ (audio), or not? Could you please tell me something about that?
Angyang's user avatar
  • 303
2 votes
1 answer
119 views

IPA confusion for 'Aegis'

Merriam-Webster says: \ˈē-jəs \ or \ˈā-jəs\ Cambridge says: /ˈiː.dʒɪs/ for US Oxfor says: /ˈiːdʒɪs/ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/aegis https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/...
KGhatak's user avatar
  • 123
1 vote
1 answer
495 views

Reason behind Oxford Dictionaries's IPA transcription?

For some reason or another, I was looking at the Oxford Dictionaries definition for ailurophile (cat-lover). Then I noticed that, underneath its Pronunciation header, it gives the IPA transcript as ...
Lordology's user avatar
  • 2,287
1 vote
0 answers
138 views

Connected speech resources

I am very interested in British pronunciation, so I am looking for resources about connected speech and IPA in general. The ideal would be a book with the transcription of dialogues or just ...
Duns's user avatar
  • 111
14 votes
1 answer
1k views

Difference between /əʳ/ and /ɚ/

Consider the word 'future.' Cambridge Dictionary shows the transcriptions /ˈfjuːtʃəʳ/ and /ˈfjuːtʃɚ/. Are they different?
Schwale's user avatar
  • 465
2 votes
0 answers
122 views

The inconsistent long i sound in English [duplicate]

As a phonics teacher, I have long had a problem with finding the right explanation to my students about an inconsistent sound. Hope someone has the explanation to it here. The long i sound in ...
Frankibutter's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
3k views

What's the difference between the AA (ɑ) and AO (ɔ) sound?

I'm working with the CMU pronunciation dictionary and I can't comfortably say I can understand what difference in sound they're trying to indicate by splitting AA and AO into different phonemes. ...
Nathan Wailes's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
498 views

How to pronounce "urethra"?

I'm confused how to pronounce "urethra". I looked up in the dictionary, it's | jʊˈriːθrə |. Shouldn't it be pronounced "yu-ri-ther"? Many YouTube videos pronounced it "yu-ri-thra".
Ken's user avatar
  • 3
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

IPA syllable breaks

When using IPA, I am aware that <.> (full stop) represents a syllable break. However, I have also read that a <-> (hyphen) can also be used? Is this correct? If so, is it simply a matter of ...
user312261's user avatar