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1

Both of your examples are examples of the open conditional - the type of conditional where the speaker thinks the condition as likely as not. These come in a variety of combinations depending on the time of the condition and the outcome (CaGEL p.743) If she leaves, I leave too. [future - future] If they don’t come, we’re wasting our time. [future - ...


0

The first sentence has a faulty coordination: On 25 July, [Russia joined Serbia in mobilisation] and [in a surprise to the Germans, as they thought...] The first coordinate is a main clause, but the second is an adjunct that lacks a main clause to modify: In a surprise to the Germans, as they thought that the Russians would take a ...


4

Both are grammatically acceptable. The relation between the elements is called coordination. In one case it would be a coordination of main clauses: [She went there][and[she started working]]. In the other case it would be of verb phrases: She [went there][and[started working]]. Leaving the repeated element in tends to emphasize it.


-1

This is known as coordination of unlike categories (CaGEL p1326). Since it is a definition you've provided as an example it may be thought of as something like: Oblique means not explicit or done in a direct way. Explicit is an AdjP and done in a direct way a past-participial, both are complements of means and modified by AdvP not. Oblique {means [not ...


0

According to Collins Dictionary, it is a subordinating conjuction, which means 'because'. Look at the 11th point of https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/for_1 .


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