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In the words of CGEL (§ 10.1 p. 719), a complex sentence is recognized by the fact that "one or more of its elements is realized as a subordinate clause". Thus, the object "how their tiny bodies would cope with what they had to carry" being a subordinate, this sentence is complex; that is all there is to it. "with what they had to ...


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The presenting examples: She begged him [not to leave her]. The colonel commanded his men [to charge]. How can we encourage a baby [to use that toy properly]? The first question is whether the infinitive clauses in brackets are subordinate. They certainly are; infinitive clauses are always subordinate. Main clauses must be tensed, and infinitives are ...


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She begged him [not to leave her]. The colonel commanded his men [to charge]. How can we encourage a baby [to use that toy properly]. Yes, the bracketed clauses are subordinate, but they are not objects. These are all catenative constructions. The verbs "beg", "command" and "encourage" are catenative verbs and the bracketed ...


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There is no linking verb in your sentence, so there is no subject complement. As is a preposition here, and as a songwriter and a singer is a prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb to modify the verb (intransitive) committed. You can simplify your sentence to better see this: She committed to music as a songwriter and a singer.


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It would make more sense to treat consist of as a phrasal verb functioning as a single unit. You then have the sentence parsed as: NP+Phrasal verb+Subject complement (which describes phobias.)


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John Lawler in a comment wrote: These three sentences, in context with one another, are examples of the Passive construction, which uses a form of be followed by the past participle (not the past form) of the verb. Someone destroys the building. Then someone removes the rubble. Someone ships the rubble to a landfill. All these sentences are active, but they ...


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"Let" is a causative verb and it is used by the person who wants to ask politely for something. For example: Let us go, Let her go, Let him go, and let them go. As you can see here, after "Let" the form of the object is in the objective case and the verb is all infinitive. Let's is the short form of "Let us" and used when a ...


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Those are adverbial phrases. In linguistics, an adverbial phrase is a multi-word expression operating adverbially: its syntactic function is to modify other expressions, including verbs, adjectives, adverbs, adverbials, and sentences. Example Next year, I will go on the cruise. — Wikipedia In this case, the phrases are modifying verbs. You can confirm they ...


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Your first example is referred to as a Participle Phrase, I've found a fairly simple explanation here. The most pertinent part of the linked article to your specific question seems to be this explanation: a reason for the action in the main clause: Having nothing left to do, Paula went home. (Since Paula had nothing left to do, she went home.) Knowing a ...


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