Sometimes I read, write or speak a sentence where a single word appears twice in a row. For example:
The book he had had a torn cover.
I was curious if there was a formal term for such a pattern.
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There is a name for it, anadiplosis, but it is often used for emphasis.
(i.e. Fear leads to Anger; Anger leads to Hate; Hate leads to suffering ~ Yoda)
When it's done accidentally it is called ‘dittography’:
Dittography is the accidental, erroneous act of repeating a letter, word, phrase or combination of letters by a scribe or copyist.