What is that condition called in English when I can't say anything, "lose my voice", due to shouting a lot?
I think it is related to my vocal chords. The usual treatment prescribed is just to stay silent for a period of one or two weeks.
A technical term could be Dysphonia
Dysphonia is the medical term for disorders of the voice: an impairment in the ability to produce voice sounds using the vocal organs (it is distinct from dysarthria which means disorders of speech, that is, an impairment in the ability to produce spoken words). Thus, dysphonia is a phonation disorder. The dysphonic voice can be hoarse or weak, or excessively breathy, harsh, or rough, but some kind of phonation is still possible (contrasted with the more severe aphonia where phonation is impossible).
A rough or harsh voice, typically the result of a sore throat or shouting, is called hoarse, the state or quality of a hoarse voice being hoarseness.
If you shout for too long, your larynx will become inflamed. This condition is called laryngitis, although laryngitis can be caused by other things, such as a viral or bacterial infection. Often people with an inflamed larynx will have trouble speaking. The generic term for disorders of the voice is dysphonia.
So if you can't talk because you were shouting too much, you could say your voice is hoarse from shouting, or that you have dysphonia caused by laryngitis.
It's called laryngitis.
There is an idiom for that:
To have a frog in one's throat
(verb) to lose your voice and be unable to speak
After her 21st birthday, Rachel had a frog in her throat because she stayed out all night singing Karaoke.
We will have to cancel the concert tonight if you have a frog in your throat.
David cannot come in to work today because he has a frog in his throat.