I am a British English Teacher, so I am not familiar with the North American use of "gotten" in the Passive Perfect Tenses. In these tenses, does the word "been" always get replaced by "gotten" in American English or is it sometimes a choice between "gotten" & "got"?

Here are some example sentences, can you give me the correct passive form in American English please?

The flying car had been invented by Oleg before he died.

The flying car had got \ gotten invented by Oleg before he died.


The report has not been published by the government.

The report has not got \ gotten published by the government.

  • 1
    Just a comment, but none of those seem right. I haven’t thought a lot about it but I think I use gotten only in the sense of acquired. “I had gotten this stuff last week before I realized it was going to be on sale this week.”
    – Jim
    Jan 9, 2017 at 14:15
  • 1
    I guess also in the sense of to become: It had gotten ruined in the wash.
    – Jim
    Jan 9, 2017 at 14:19
  • I quit counting the duplicates on this site when I had gotten to 25. Please search for the earlier questions.
    – Phil Sweet
    Jan 9, 2017 at 15:28
  • Possible duplicate of Difference between "I have got" and "I have gotten"
    – Phil Sweet
    Jan 9, 2017 at 15:31
  • Related: “I've gotten better-looking as I get older”
    – Mari-Lou A
    Jan 9, 2017 at 15:39

1 Answer 1


If it was a choice between got and gotten in these sentences, the right choice is gotten.

However, as the other comments and answers say, Americans would not use gotten for either of these sentences; the verb been is much better. Better examples would be

She had gotten married the year before.

I had gotten myself fired and was looking for work.

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