Phrases like this are used when someone may have competing self interests in the situation. For example in the original quote, "You can tear this tower apart brick by brick, but without my help, you will never find your precious satchel without my help." on its own may be interpreted as an attempt at misinformation. Maybe the satchel will be easy to find without the speaker!
In situations like these, where two individuals have conflicting interests, there is sometimes a "win-win" solution which meets both of their needs enough to stop them from conflicting and start them working together. It sounds like the speaker in your first quote has a plan to help the other individual (probably in exchange for something which isn't specified in this quote). The idea is to say "You want the satchel, I want something else. We can help eachother."
However, in such conflicting situations it is hard to tell the difference between spreading misinformation and seeking a win-win solution. Thus, in English, we have several phrases that effectively mean, "The next bit I'm about to tell you is intended to provide value to both of us, as a win-win, not just providing value to me."
Thus I would translate:
Trust me when I tell you this. You can tear this tower apart brick by
brick, but without my help, you will never find your precious satchel
without my help.
as "I believe you clearly want the satchel. Despite my previous actions to keep you away from that satchel, it's a means to my true goal, not an end. If we work together, I can help you get the satchel, you can help me accomplish my goal, and we will both walk away happy."
Such a phrasing can be abused, and is abused. English has a few phrases like this which are usually not used until the situation is dire, so that their sudden use is meaningful. In the case of the satchel, the speaker should not be implicitly trusted, so the idea of tearing the tower apart should remain on the table, but it does suggest the speaker is willing to use one of these dire-circumstances phrases to get a point across. This is often enough to at least open a line of communication where the speaker might have otherwise been ignore.
Such a phrase can be used to catch someone off guard, and it is usually used when they are in a compromised position (such as wanting a satchel, and being ready to tear a tower apart to get it). Usually, however, it is the statement that follows which truly catches people off guard.
Trust me when I say this to you, they will never owe you money.
The phrasing here indicates that the person being spoken to believes "they" owe him or her money. The speaker is arguing that they will not. Context is needed. Perhaps this means the listener has a plan to make money by lending money to "them," and the speaker is trying to tell the listener that "they" never borrow money. Or perhaps he's saying that they will accept the money, but will never "owe" money as in they will never pay it back. Or perhaps the speaker is simply making a confidence play, trying to get the listener to invest with the speaker rather than "them." In any case, the speaker considers this information important enough to invoke a phrase in English to beg for the listener to listen moreso than they usually would.