All of this is in the context of computer user interfaces, I can't really comment on the more general meaning.
Properties are attributes of a thing that are somehow inherent to it. Examples of properties are:
- the amount of memory in your computer
- the type of processor/CPU in your computer
- the size of a hard disk in your computer
- the size of a given file
You can't usually change properties directly. You can open the computer and add more memory, but you can't just pull a "memory" slider to the right to add more memory.
Settings are attributes that can easily be modified. Examples of settings are:
- the background color and/or image of your desktop
- the format used to display the time of day
- the location where your browser stores downloaded files
Note that there is a separate meaning of this in the world of object-oriented programming (a part of software development) where a property is any attribute of an object, no matter if it's changeable or not. But even here the terminology can vary a lot between languages.