Could you, please, tell me whether it is mandatory to capitalise lowercase abbreviations in titles (e.g., viz., vs., i.e.), or it's completely wrong, or it's just a matter of preference?

  1. Kittens vs. Puppies

1.2. Kittens Vs. Puppies

  1. Aminals, People, etc. And, of Course, Mushrooms

2.2. Animals, People, Etc. And, of Course, Mushrooms

  • versus (vs.) is a preposition — lowercase. Mar 19, 2023 at 3:20

1 Answer 1


It's customary that "short words" - specifically conjunctions, articles and prepositions - are not capitalized in titles (except at the start of the title). I would treat "vs." as a kind of preposition. In any case I would also always leave words like that lowercase. Anything else looks weird. So:

Kittens vs. Puppies

In your second example "and" is one of the words not usually capitalized. It's also weird in other ways - for example you would not normally have another item in a list after "etc." - "Etc." means "and so on" and thus would include all the things you would normally expect to be in the list which would (of course) include mushrooms. You might try:

Animals, People and, of Course, Mushrooms etc.

It doesn't mean exactly the same thing, but if it covers what you want I would use it. The whole thing is a weird title, and if you are not deliberately looking to create a weird title write it another way. Alternatively:

Of Course Mushrooms, and Animals, People etc.

I'm in two minds about the capitalization of "of" and "course". I also think that if you spelled out "etcetera" in full I would probably capitalize it, but not "versus"

  • I'm in two minds about the capitalization of "of" and "course". Indeed, in both your last two suggestions the capitalisation of Course rather suggests it is of equal status to Animals, People, Mushrooms and I'm not sure that capitalising Of too would fix that problem. Mar 18, 2023 at 15:28
  • Of course and etc. are not usually in titles. Otherwise I agree.
    – Lambie
    Mar 18, 2023 at 15:48

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