What is a general name for various kinds of measurements?

Kilometere is a distance measurement unit.

Kilogram is a weight measurement unit.

The Gini index is measuring inequality.

distance, weight and inequality are all ... ?

• Uh, "measurements"? (Though the word only applies to that specific use of the term "inequality".) Commented Jul 7, 2016 at 1:34
• Mensurandum seems like it might be possible, but nobody would know what you meant. (I've only found a few examples of this word using Google, all in technical/academic contexts and possibly used by non-native speakers. That said, the following paper does define it as the "property of the concrete system we wish to measure": MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AS A BASIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DISCIPLINE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, Ivan Frollo). Commented Jul 14, 2016 at 22:02
• 'Measures' carries this sense, but others such as 'units of measurements'. Also a hyponym in 'weights and measures'. Commented Jan 10, 2021 at 16:46

Source:OED

Quantity, n.

I. An amount, a portion.

a. A specified or definite amount of an article or commodity; a (large, small, etc.) portion or measure; also without of-adjunct. Also (occas.): an amount of something immaterial.

Measurand would seem to fit your requirement, though it is by no means a common word. It is a "quantity, object, or property intended to be measured" (Wiktionary). I had wondered if mensurand was a word, but as far as I can find out, it isn't.

On a point of information (since we are all about accuracy on this forum), the kilogram is a measure of mass (the amount of 'matter' there is in a physical entity), not weight. The SI unit of weight, which is a force, is a newton. On earth, one kilogram weighs approximately ten newtons (or 9.80665 if you prefer).

• Yes, and your weight is approximately 650 newtons. When my son was born, my scientist colleagues asked how much he weighed and I replied "360 newtons." They said "No, come on, how much did he really weigh?" so I told them in pounds and ounces and they were satisfied... Commented Jul 9, 2022 at 17:30