Where did the word Yankee originate? I was told it had Dutch origins. There is a lot of information on its usage today referring to northern, New England, American etc. but where did it come from and what was it's original meaning?
Its origin is still unclear: Yankee1683, a name applied disparagingly by Dutch settlers in New Amsterdam (New York) to English colonists in neighboring Connecticut. It may be from Dutch Janke, literally "Little John," diminutive of common personal name Jan; or it may be from Jan Kes familiar form of "John Cornelius," or perhaps an alteration of Jan Kees, dialectal variant of Jan Kaas, literally "John Cheese," the generic nickname the Flemings used for Dutchmen. etymonline.com/index.php?term=yankee– user66974Apr 22, 2016 at 10:35
The first known attestation of the word Yankee is found in a letter from 1758 by General James Wolfe —he used it as a term of contempt for the American colonial troops in his command. The song Yankee Doodle, which in early versions was sung by British troops to mock colonial Americans, originally used Yankee in this way: Yankee Doodle came to town / For to buy a firelock / We will tar and feather him / And so we will John Hancock. However, colonial American soldiers.... ahdictionary.tumblr.com/post/54995651576/the-history-of-yankee– user66974Apr 22, 2016 at 10:37
I'm sure I read something once that said "Yankee" was originally a pejorative for Scotsmen - or perhaps just Scottish sailors - that eventually came to be used to refer to Americans, back in the days of the Revolutionary War. I wish I could give you more details or tell you where I saw it but I truly don't remember.– HenryApr 26, 2016 at 19:55
The ultimate origin of Yankee is unknown. The Library of Congress' 1909 Report on the Star-spangled banner, Hail Columbia, America, Yankee Doodle, compiled by Oscar G. T. Sonneck, reports that the origin was unknown even in the mid-18th century. A 1765 commentary on Oppression, “a Poem by an American with notes by a North Briton” contains this note:
From meanness first, this Portsmouth Yankey rose
And still to meanness all his conduct flows …
“Portsmouth Yankey.” It seems our hero being a new Englander by birth, has a right to the epithet of Yankey, a name of derision, I have been informed, given by the Southern people on the Continent, to those of New England; what meaning there is in the word, I could never learn.
The popularity of the term is possibly related to a farmer and tanner, Jonathan Hastings, who is attested to have lived in Cambridge, Massachusetts around 1728 and was known to students at Harvard. The story is that he was nicknamed Yankey, and the term came to be applied to the characteristics of his products and personality.
A Massachusetts origin would raise some new questions about E.B. White's definitions:
To foreigners, a Yankee is an American.
To Americans, a Yankee is a Northerner.
To Northerners, a Yankee is an Easterner.
To Easterners, a Yankee is a New Englander.
To New Englanders, a Yankee is a Vermonter.
And in Vermont, a Yankee is somebody who eats pie for breakfast.
But Sonneck notes that the fact that Yankey Hastings was a historical figure does not mean he invented the term. He quotes an inventory of the estate of a William Marr from 1725, who owned a slave named Yankee. Besides, how a term popular in New England would come to be used as a term of derision by people outside of New England is not clear.
Sonneck also reports that the popularity of the song Yankee Doodle led to a cottage industry of false etymologies. The 1991 Merriam-Webster New Book of Word Histories notes that the most popular theory, advanced in 1789 by a British officer named Thomas Anburey, traces it to the Cherokee word eankke meaning coward or slave. The problem is that no such word exists. Likewise, the Yankos tribe of American Indians; words or mispronunciations like yanokie, yengee, yinglee, yaunghee, and so on; and other words from Lincolnshire, Scotland, France, and even India or Persia are also mythical or preposterous.
Despite taking Occam's razor to janker, Jantje, Jantje Kaas, and others, Sonneck prefers a Dutch origin:
If the Dutch, on the other hand, actually do use Jancke (pronounced Yankee) in the sense of Little John or Johnnie, then this would be the most plausible derivation, and “Yankee Doodle” would be “Johnny Doodle” .… Whatever the origin of “Yankee” might have been, after “Yankee” was preferably applied to New Englanders, “Yankee Doodle” would simply mean a New England doodle, and it is not to be wondered at that the New Englanders did not take kindly to this nickname “Yankee,” especially not if it meant “Johnny.”
This is the theory the OED prefers:
Perhaps the most plausible conjecture is that it comes from Dutch Janke, diminutive of Jan John, applied as a derisive nickname by either Dutch or English in the New England states (J. N. A. Thierry, 1838, in Life of Ticknor, 1876, II. vii. 124). The existence of Yank(e)y, Yankee, as a surname or nickname (often with Dutch associations) is vouched for by the following references:
- 1683 Cal. State Papers, Colon. Ser. (1898) 457 They [sc. pirates] sailed from Bonaco..; chief commanders, Vanhorn, Laurens, and Yankey Duch. …
The OED also refers to the Cherokee theory as the earliest.– WS2Apr 22, 2016 at 22:48
With regard to a Cherokee origin, you could attack the problem from the other direction: The Cherokee Nation has an online English-Cherokee dictionary. Apparently their word for yankee is ᎤᏂᎷᏨᎯ, which is pronounced u-ni-lu-tsv-hi. This sounds nothing like "yankee". Nov 28, 2018 at 16:48
In the "Leathetsticking Tales", James Fenimire Cooper attributes the term "Yankee" to the American Indian pronunciation of "English" as "yeng-geese".