I'm learning English and trying to use Voices. Yesterday i had answered on StackOverflow and typed like below

This file is located here

I think it's the Passive Voice, but in Russian (my native language is Russian) it's the Active Voice, because it translates as располагаетСЯ, where располагает is like English "locate" and СЯ is like English "self".

Can you tell me what Voice is it in English? Did i use it right?

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    Hi Kastaneda! Like the adjectives bored, interested, there is also an adjective located. The adjective located must always take a preposition [located on, in, at, here, there etc]. Your sentence is correct. Some English adjectives have the same from as past participles of verbs. That means that two different types of sentence can look the same. One type of sentence: Subject + 'BE' + Adjective --> "He was tall". A passive sentence: Subject + 'BE' + Past Participle "He was killed". Your sentence is the first type. It looks passive because "located" looks like a participle! – Araucaria - Not here any more. Oct 6 '14 at 11:48
  • In English, the locate part is not needed, is serves the purpose. What you have is, "This file is right here," is = располагает and right = СЯ (Some non-native speakers use the expression "is here itself") – Kris Oct 6 '14 at 12:22
  • @Kris, "this file is located here" is my answer for question "where i can read this file?". In this case "this file is right here" is correct? – Kastaneda Oct 6 '14 at 13:05
  • Have you visited out sister site English Language Learners yet? – Kris Oct 7 '14 at 6:25
  • You probably mean 'not yet.' – Kris Oct 7 '14 at 12:10

In order to interpret this sentence as passive voice, we have to assume there is an agent implied:

This file is located here by someone.

My guess would be that strict followers of Strunk and White would read the sentence like this, but I have my doubts about this interpretation. To locate something means that someone establishes the location, not that someone places it there.

We can read the sentence also as active, by seeing the past participle located being used attributively (used as a kind of adjective). The verb is becomes a simple copula in that case.

The sentence can be read in the same way as:

The file is big.
The file is small.

Other participles that can be used attributively are:

The file is encrypted.
The file is lost.
The file is saved.
The file is corrupted.

Although it is possible to read an implied agent in these sentences in some cases (the file may be saved by John), it is (almost) senseless to imply an agent in other cases —who cares who or what has encrypted a file, or corrupted it?

So while it is possible to read your sentence as passive, I think the common and sensible interpretation is to read it as an active voice.

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    I've just been looking at the participle - adjective continuum grey area. Interestingly, 'The file was located here' (when used with the sense 'The file was [hint of finally] found here') is unarguably a passive usage. WordNet-Farlex are happy with the deverbal adjective: located Adj. 1. located - situated in a particular spot or position; "valuable centrally located urban land"; [cf] "strategically placed artillery"; "a house set on a hilltop"; "nicely situated on a quiet riverbank" >> I'd not argue. OP's sentence is certainly not passive; perhaps 'be located' should be considered a MWV. – Edwin Ashworth Oct 6 '14 at 7:09
  • Thanks, if it's the active voice, than i had to write this file locates here ? – Kastaneda Oct 6 '14 at 7:11
  • Perhaps this is a deponent or semi-deponent usage? OP sure chose a humdinger. – Edwin Ashworth Oct 6 '14 at 7:12
  • @EdwinAshworth, sorry, can you rephrase your answer? I (and google-translate) don't understand:). And what is "OP"? – Kastaneda Oct 6 '14 at 7:23
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    Oh, and as to whether it's "passive voice" or not, there is no voice system in English, just as there is no case system, no mood system, and only two tenses. All this phony terminology "Passive Voice", "Subjunctive Mood", "Past Perfect Tense", etc. are imports from Latin and they fit English like a three-dollar suit. – John Lawler Oct 6 '14 at 15:28

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