Is there a specific word or phrase to describe a person who is
- impatient learning new things
- dislikes reading lengthy passages
- always likes learning by example plus doing experiments in parallel?
Note that I am the person in question.
It sounds like you are describing some of the attributes of one of the learning styles known as the kinesthetic or tactile learner.
Without any reference to back me up, I believe this word fits all the attributes you gave:
an impatient experimenter
It's not exactly what you're looking for, but how about:
an unorthodox or independent-minded person: