9

According to the NY Times Style Guide, the underlying principles of quoting someone are respect for the speaker and the accurate representation of their statement. People often say things like “gotta” in place of “have got to”, and who can blame them? However, if you’re going to clean this up grammatically for publication, it would be more respectful of ...


7

The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition (2010) addresses the issue of indexing the names of "monarchs, popes, and the like" as follows: 16.37 Indexing monarchs, popes, and the like. Monarchs, popes, and others who are known by their official names, often including a roman numeral should be indexed under the official name. Identifying tags may be ...


6

Since you are writing in English the ordinary punctuation rules for English would apply. Use square brackets [] or parentheses () to offset an entire parenthetical sojourn into kanji or kana, and punctuate as necessary. Sometimes you don't need to set the words off at all, since written Japanese is so far from English that it sets itself off quite nicely. ...


5

In a word: no. You have to have a pronoun or other noun here: “since it was carved”. You can usually omit the subject in the context “Subject predicate and predicate” (e.g., “Sculpture A exhibits degradation and is a cause for concern”), but adjuncts do not permit this kind of subject omission (e.g., you can’t say “Sculpture A exhibits degradation because _ ...


4

When "some degree of" is used, it's generally a case of deliberate ambiguity. The speaker is talking about a value that is not easily quantifiable, either because the property is not measurable or because the variables are sufficiently 'fuzzy' that picking a single value is too difficult. So in the case of your car example, the writer/speaker knows that ...


3

It is really a matter of opinion and house/journal style. However the way out for the purist is to avoid the issue by starting a new sentence if possible. This will also remove an interruption that might make the argument more difficult to follow. Here it's easy: just remove the "and" and start a new sentence with "Then". (There is a problem with this ...


3

Assuming the question is over how to write and punctuate the time, Cambridge dictionaries say either a full stop or colon can be used: Punctuation, from English Grammar Today. The Guardian style guide recommends full stops with 24 hour times (this does not mean other forms are wrong, only that it wants its journalists to use them). Both sources state that "...


3

Many people in Britain still write dates as ordinal numbers. I share a classroom with another teacher who absolutely insists on students writing them as ordinal numbers.


3

It's quite hard to say in any particular case that it's wrong to use the past simple rather than the past perfect. For cases (1) and (2), I would say that the tenses the writers chose are the most likely tenses for native English speakers to use. For (3), we simply don't have enough information to decide one way or the other. The hugs were after the ...


3

The Associated Press Stylebook (2018) has the following entry on "Quotations" under News Values on p.520: Quotes must not be taken out of context. We do not alter quotations, even to correct grammatical errors or word usage. If a quotation is flawed because of grammar or lack of clarity, it may be paraphrased in a way that is completely true to the ...


3

In general, you should not modify a quote. If someone said "gotta" then that's what you write, not a grammatically-corrected version. You do need to be careful to avoid implying that you are making fun of the person's mode of speech, though. However, you can add a suffix "[sic]" (short for 'sic erat scriptum', 'thus was it written') to indicate that this ...


2

I'm not sure if it's a case of British vs American as University of Leicester give these examples, all with ; and : The speakers were: Dr Sally Meadows, Biology; Dr Fred Eliot, Animal Welfare; Ms Gerri Taylor, Sociology; and Prof. Julie Briggs, Chemistry. The four venues will be: Middleton Hall, Manchester; Highton House, Liverpool; Marsden Hall, ...


2

The Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition) is quite clear in section 9.35: "The day of the month. When specific dates are expressed, cardinal numbers are used, although they may be pronounced as ordinals."


2

According to The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition (2010), it is acceptable to position a question mark immediately in front of a closing em dash. Here is Chicago's entry on this topic: 6.87 Em dashes with other punctuation. In modern usage, a question mark or an exclamation point—but never a comma, a colon, or a semicolon, end rarely a period (...


2

The Elements of Style 2007 edition by Strunk and White (E.B. White wrote for The New Yorker) shows the following: October to January, 1952 ; July 6, 2017 ; Monday, November 7, 1888 ; and 25 December 1985 He recommends the last example. I believe the 4th edition shows the same comma usage.


2

There is no significant difference between the two, as they both carry the same meaning. If you can do nothing, you cannot do anything. If you cannot do anything, the only thing that you can do is nothing.


2

In a comment, John Lawler wrote: It's been happening to English suffixes for the last 500 years or so. Zero-affix morphology is the normal English way; think un-suffixed noun compounds like Sierra Rim Canyon County School Board Room. Compare to Spanish or French, which would have lots of de's and la's. Many compounds that previously required -ing forms no ...


2

Not a full answer ... See the explanation of the Palmer method. It has the high stroke on the 'p'. In around 1958, We were supposedly taught the "Palmer method" of writing ... but it did not have the high stroke on the 'p'. And the capital 'F' was much more difficult. (The other letters on that page look like what we learned.) So it was I guess some ...


2

It's far too complicated (and varying between dialects) to have a general rule for articles, but I can address the specific cases you brought up. I did some searches in the Corpus of Contemporary American English and got these results: at time of writing: 5 hits at the time of writing: 80 hits . In future ,: 14 hits . In the future ,: 566 hits I'm not ...


2

Different journals may do this in different ways. Many journals, such as ACM journals, typically put code and pseudocode into a figure, and not insert it into text. If you are doing this to submit to a scientific journal, look at their style guide (assuming they have one that's online). And if it isn't treated in their style guide, look at some published ...


2

The reason why the quotation marks are needed in the second sentence is not that the nouns are abstract, but that they are nouns. The general rule is that when one wishes to refer to a word, rather than to what the word normally signifies, one uses the word in quotation marks, or, alternatively, in italics. (The rule is, however, not followed very ...


2

It's called suspensive hyphenation, and you used it correctly, except you need to close the space between IT- and related. John enjoys translating economics- and IT-related articles Here's the AP stylebook entry on suspensive hyphenation: SUSPENSIVE HYPHENATION: The form: He received a 10- to 20-year sentence in prison.


2

If referring to a person (e.g. George Washington; and provided that person is identified prior to the statement in question), "Washington biographer" implies that Ron Chernow was one of possibly several biographers. "Washington's biographer" implies that Ron Chernow was Washington's only [official] biographer.


2

That is how trains are described by railway staff in the UK when making announcements. In the past, the 12-hour clock was used. Such a construction is perfectly normal. A train is identified to the public as the "hour [dot/period] minutes" train from [starting station].


2

The OED has no entry for humanitarian sciences, but it does have one for human science, meaning, those academic subjects in which people or their actions form the object of study, as contrasted with the natural sciences or physical sciences; the humanities, (in later use esp.) the social sciences. 1833 E. B. Pusey Remarks Prospective & Past Benefits ...


2

The Chicago Manual of Style, sixteenth edition (2010), offers the following guidance for dealing with punctuation before "such as": 6.27 Commas with "such as" and "including." The principles delineated in 6.26 ("Commas with restrictive and nonrestrictive phrases") apply lo to phrases introduced by such as or including. Phrases introduced by these terms ...


2

(1) When you are unsure about a past perfect tense, try shifting to present perfect, and adjusting the rest of the sentence accordingly. Let's shift "he had heard" to "he has heard." Then we have to shift "They soothed" to the present tense "They are soothing." This is what we get: They are soothing him with hugs and the first kind words he has heard ...


2

You are well on the way. Since you ask I will add a few corrections. To start I will say that you have Exchanged some emails with your boss. My basic advice is to say things as simply as you can. The more words you and your boss use the further they get from the goal. I am sorry if I sounded as if I have problems with your advises [advice] might be I ...


1

Your original sentence - Without those measurements, we cannot measure if we are progressing in the right direction. does not make much technical sense. You cannot measure directions. Progress can be measured or gauged. Direction can be judged, determined, figured out, etc. Consider: Without those measurements, we cannot judge with any certainty if ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible