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1

Either [ɐ] or [ʌ] is possible: there is not a contrast, and there is not a specific quality that must be used in standard English. (The concept of "standard" is very unclear as applied to pronunciation, actually.) Since it is one phoneme, it should be transcribed in a phonemic transcription with one symbol, but you can choose whether you want that ...


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I'm not sure, but I think "to" and "do" are spelled that way because they are function words. According to Wiktionary, the Middle English ancestors of "do" and "go" were pronounced with /ɔː/ and /oː/, the vowels that became /oʊ̯/ as in "goat" and /uː/ as in "goose". So based on modern English ...


1

The /a/ phoneme represents the open front unrounded vowel from FATHER and KHAN. If you have this, you do not have the next one. It can be found in some speakers from southern England. Other native speakers use a back vowel here instead, /ɑ/, which means those with the back vowel can easily confuse hearing this one from speakers of southern English for the /æ/...


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