111

The Tironian et and the modern ampersand had different origins, with the Tironian et having been invented as one of ~13,000 symbols/shorthand by Cicero's scribe, Tiro. It persisted until it succumbed to a linguistic witch hunt during the middle ages, when suspicion was cast upon it for appearing to be a rune or secret cipher. (This detail has been rightly ...


102

That is called an ambigram. It is a typographical design that can be read in more than one direction. ambigram noun A typographical design consisting of text modified in such a way that it can be read in multiple orientations, as in mirror image, inverted, or when rotated. (ODO) Famously (?) used in Dan Brown's Angels and Demons.


64

You asked what the “technical name” is; those technical names are given in bold below, although there are others less formal as well. The answer depends on precisely which character you mean. It might be a less-than sign, an angle quotation mark, or an angle bracket. In handwritten manuscripts and on primitive old-school typewriters there is no real ...


57

It's an ordinal indicator: In written languages, an ordinal indicator is a letter, or group of letters, following a numeral denoting that it is an ordinal number, rather than a cardinal number. Historically these letters were "elevated terminals", that is to say the last few letters of the full word denoting the ordinal form of the number displayed as a ...


49

Even though it looks like a seven, it's actually a shorthand character called a "Tironian et" From http://www.ualberta.ca/~sreimer/ms-course/course/abbrevtn.htm Tironian nota for "et" (this frequently looks like a small number "7" or, later, a "z" or a "z" inside a circle; cf. the ampersand: &): Tiro was a member of Cicero's household who ...


48

The word you are looking for is embossed. emboss Carve, mould, or stamp a design on (a surface or object) so that it stands out in relief: ‘an embossed brass dish’ ‘the silverware is embossed with falcons’ Regarding embossed stone, you can see the websites of two monument masons using the term here: Embossed - Background sandblasted away ...


38

The consensus is... there is no consensus. In fact, some of the style guides I checked didn't even mention it. In that case you can just use the spelling recommended by a dictionary. That's what The Chicago Manual of Style Online recommends: Generally, we leave such things to the dictionary. Our main arbiter in matters of spelling—Webster’s eleventh—tends ...


37

In What Is the Real Name of the #?, a good explanation of this sign is given. Technically, it's called the octothorpe. Called the pound sign, number sign and more recently the hashtag, it actually developed as a scribble for the abbreviation of pound in latin: lb, where lb is an abbreviation of libra, itself a shortened form of the full expression, libra ...


26

As a web developer I frequently use angle brackets in markup. The World Wide Web Consortium is the standards organization for HTML, and in their recommendation for HTML 5, they refer specifically to Unicode character 003C: The first character of a start tag must be a "<" (U+003C) character. 003C is generally the character produced from the keyboard (...


26

'V' and 'u' were regarded as the same letter from antiquity until well after this time. Some texts used only one form; some used both forms, but the choice was often either arbitrary, or based on something other than the sound (such as aesthetic reasons). The letter you have identified as 'b' is not 'b': it is 'v' - it appears that in that text, the form ...


23

You certainly do not want to use full spaces within strings of initials. Indeed, you quite possibly do not want to use any spaces at all. It depends whether we are talking about text generated under the tyranny of the typewriter or text that is to be professionally typeset. With a typewriter, you should not use any spaces, but when typeset, smaller spaces ...


23

If you are talking about raised letters on stone, you would never call it embossed. (There are various techniques for making "raised things". Molding, relief carving, vacuum forming, etc. Embossed refers to the technique for making raised things, namely, pushed through, hammered through, rubbed through.) So, you mean the extreme bottom left image on a ...


19

They can also be called chevrons, or angle brackets. While these terms can be interchangeable in a layman's context, and would not look so different when written by hand, there are 4 different symbols in the Unicode standard, and they have different usages. In mathematics, "greater than" and "lesser than" would be the correct precise terms. In HTML markup, ...


16

To some extent, it depends on the font you are using and how accessible its special features are. If you can do full typesetting, then you probably want to make the th part look different from the 20 part, just like they do here: There they have idiosyncratically used 20th rather than 20th, but the point is that the letters and numbers — more properly, ...


15

First, be aware that manoeuvre is now normally spelled maneuver in America, and indeed, has fallen behind maneuvre in England. Even the Economist (but not the Œconomist :) uses maneuvre now. Rendering Typographic Ligatures Correctly The general answer is that œ is considered a mere typographic ligature in written English, not a lexical ligature as it is in ...


15

I do not think that garçon/garcon is an ideal example, as it is seldom used as an English word (i.e. it is generally only used only to refer to a French individual). A better loan-word with a cedilla is provided in the quotation in the answer by @user3293056 — the word façade/facade, which I would consider a word used in normal educated English speech, ...


14

Though meant for creating subtitles for foreign users, this link of TED was quite informative for my purposes—deciding line breaks for two/three-line-per-page stories for children. It’s less grammar based and more aesthetic based. A few important rules I understand from above are: Do not break up linguistic units among lines. Maintain balance, similar ...


14

Inches (like seconds of arc and seconds of time) are denoted by the double prime mark, not a quotation mark, although for ease of typing, it is common to see the straight quotation mark (the "dumb quote" found on most computer keyboards) used in its place. The most typographically correct presentation would be 4⅝ × 3¾″ and not ∅ 4⅝ × 3¾" ...


13

Jot and tittle are both technological waste; scraps on the floor, left over from a few millennia of literacy technology. There isn't really a meaning distinction between them; both are nonce forms that refer to any small chunk of writing. And both are used mostly as NPIs in negative contexts, especially in the open Verb + Minimal Direct Object Construction,...


13

The name that I'm familiar with (in U.S. publishing) for this style element is lead-in small caps. You can read a discussion of various lead-ins (including lead-in small caps) in an article titled "Designing with Lead-ins" by Ilene Strizver on the Creative Pro website. As Strizver's article notes, an all-cap lead-in can be set in small caps or full-size caps,...


12

It's not unheard of to see Πin English orthography, and was once much more common than it is now. These days though, it would be so rare as to be only barely acceptable, unless the word was clearly being used as a foreign word (e.g. with italics). (I personally use it privately, but I'll change it in anything being sent to an editor even if I'm not writing ...


12

& comes from a Latin scribal abbreviation for et (⁊ which was used as an alternative to & in Old English and is still used that way in Modern Irish comes from a different form of the same thing). c̄ was a Latin scribal abbreviation for cum and p̱ for per, both of which would be used some places where in English we would use with. They had other ...


11

http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/jot jot noun   a very small amount: Origin: late 15th century (as a noun): via Latin from Greek iōta, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet The Greek letter iota doesn't have a tittle, so every jot and tittle refers to the ı part and the dot on top. The answer to the question is "...


11

Unless you are writing for some publication that mandates one or the other, use whichever you wish. There is absolutely no should about the matter.


11

I, an ignorant, lazy, hubristic, and (most-importantly) impatient American, need to add this preface, so I will have enough letters for this to be counted as an answer. One word: Keyboard Please, before you take offense at my use of adjectives, read the second-to-last paragraph before the note about dıacrıtıcs ın English. Now that I've made this answer ...


10

I have been searching for the same as the OP. More searching has revealed this in the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (I have not read the whole of it, so I might be misinterpreting it): 16.17. Signatures, preceded by an em dash, are sometimes run in with last line of text. UPDATE (2019-10-01) There appears to be a PDF render of the ...


10

According to All-Knowing Wikipedia, jot derives from iota, and the KJV's jot and tittle is a translation of the Greek New Testament's ἰῶτα ἓν ἢ μία κεραία (Matthew 5:18), "one iota or one keraia," where keraia apparently refers to some sort of tiny hook-like diacritic or punctuation mark. Either way, the point is that iotas and keraias are tiny characters or ...


10

If this source is to be believed, the German Eszett is an intentional, early 20th century borrowing into Antiqua from Fraktur of a ligature of ſ and z — whether or not, in any given font, the Eszett resembles the ſ-s ligature is apparently purely a matter of typographical taste. As for the ſ-s ligature itself, it would have been in use only as long as long ...


10

We also refer to them as minuscules, though this is less common. Calling a letter small, lower-case or lowercase is clear and concise, and you should go by those.


10

In the Old English language that was spelled þæt. It was also abbreviated as a letter Thorn, þ, with the ascender crossed, ꝥ . Wikipedia: That


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