112

The Tironian et and the modern ampersand had different origins, with the Tironian et having been invented as one of ~13,000 symbols/shorthand by Cicero's scribe, Tiro. It persisted until it succumbed to a linguistic witch hunt during the middle ages, when suspicion was cast upon it for appearing to be a rune or secret cipher. (This detail has been rightly ...


102

That is called an ambigram. It is a typographical design that can be read in more than one direction. ambigram noun A typographical design consisting of text modified in such a way that it can be read in multiple orientations, as in mirror image, inverted, or when rotated. (ODO) Famously (?) used in Dan Brown's Angels and Demons.


67

There’s a specific term for this, and even an entire Wikipedia article: In typography, rivers (or rivers of white) are gaps in typesetting which appear to run through a paragraph of text due to a coincidental alignment of spaces. They have this example:


64

You asked what the “technical name” is; those technical names are given in bold below, although there are others less formal as well. The answer depends on precisely which character you mean. It might be a less-than sign, an angle quotation mark, or an angle bracket. In handwritten manuscripts and on primitive old-school typewriters there is no real ...


57

It's an ordinal indicator: In written languages, an ordinal indicator is a letter, or group of letters, following a numeral denoting that it is an ordinal number, rather than a cardinal number. Historically these letters were "elevated terminals", that is to say the last few letters of the full word denoting the ordinal form of the number displayed as a ...


51

Even though it looks like a seven, it's actually a shorthand character called a "Tironian et" From http://www.ualberta.ca/~sreimer/ms-course/course/abbrevtn.htm Tironian nota for "et" (this frequently looks like a small number "7" or, later, a "z" or a "z" inside a circle; cf. the ampersand: &): Tiro was a member of Cicero's household who ...


48

The word you are looking for is embossed. emboss Carve, mould, or stamp a design on (a surface or object) so that it stands out in relief: ‘an embossed brass dish’ ‘the silverware is embossed with falcons’ Regarding embossed stone, you can see the websites of two monument masons using the term here: Embossed - Background sandblasted away ...


38

The consensus is... there is no consensus. In fact, some of the style guides I checked didn't even mention it. In that case you can just use the spelling recommended by a dictionary. That's what The Chicago Manual of Style Online recommends: Generally, we leave such things to the dictionary. Our main arbiter in matters of spelling—Webster’s eleventh—tends ...


37

In What Is the Real Name of the #?, a good explanation of this sign is given. Technically, it's called the octothorpe. Called the pound sign, number sign and more recently the hashtag, it actually developed as a scribble for the abbreviation of pound in latin: lb, where lb is an abbreviation of libra, itself a shortened form of the full expression, libra ...


27

As a web developer I frequently use angle brackets in markup. The World Wide Web Consortium is the standards organization for HTML, and in their recommendation for HTML 5, they refer specifically to Unicode character 003C: The first character of a start tag must be a "<" (U+003C) character. 003C is generally the character produced from the keyboard (...


26

'V' and 'u' were regarded as the same letter from antiquity until well after this time. Some texts used only one form; some used both forms, but the choice was often either arbitrary, or based on something other than the sound (such as aesthetic reasons). The letter you have identified as 'b' is not 'b': it is 'v' - it appears that in that text, the form ...


23

You certainly do not want to use full spaces within strings of initials. Indeed, you quite possibly do not want to use any spaces at all. It depends whether we are talking about text generated under the tyranny of the typewriter or text that is to be professionally typeset. With a typewriter, you should not use any spaces, but when typeset, smaller spaces ...


23

If you are talking about raised letters on stone, you would never call it embossed. (There are various techniques for making "raised things". Molding, relief carving, vacuum forming, etc. Embossed refers to the technique for making raised things, namely, pushed through, hammered through, rubbed through.) So, you mean the extreme bottom left image on a ...


19

They can also be called chevrons, or angle brackets. While these terms can be interchangeable in a layman's context, and would not look so different when written by hand, there are 4 different symbols in the Unicode standard, and they have different usages. In mathematics, "greater than" and "lesser than" would be the correct precise terms. In HTML markup, ...


15

Though meant for creating subtitles for foreign users, this link of TED was quite informative for my purposes—deciding line breaks for two/three-line-per-page stories for children. It’s less grammar based and more aesthetic based. A few important rules I understand from above are: Do not break up linguistic units among lines. Maintain balance, similar ...


15

I do not think that garçon/garcon is an ideal example, as it is seldom used as an English word (i.e. it is generally only used only to refer to a French individual). A better loan-word with a cedilla is provided in the quotation in the answer by @user3293056 — the word façade/facade, which I would consider a word used in normal educated English speech, ...


14

Inches (like seconds of arc and seconds of time) are denoted by the double prime mark, not a quotation mark, although for ease of typing, it is common to see the straight quotation mark (the "dumb quote" found on most computer keyboards) used in its place. The most typographically correct presentation would be 4⅝ × 3¾″ and not ∅ 4⅝ × 3¾" ...


13

The name that I'm familiar with (in U.S. publishing) for this style element is lead-in small caps. You can read a discussion of various lead-ins (including lead-in small caps) in an article titled "Designing with Lead-ins" by Ilene Strizver on the Creative Pro website. As Strizver's article notes, an all-cap lead-in can be set in small caps or full-size caps,...


12

& comes from a Latin scribal abbreviation for et (⁊ which was used as an alternative to & in Old English and is still used that way in Modern Irish comes from a different form of the same thing). c̄ was a Latin scribal abbreviation for cum and p̱ for per, both of which would be used some places where in English we would use with. They had other ...


11

I have been searching for the same as the OP. More searching has revealed this in the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (I have not read the whole of it, so I might be misinterpreting it): 16.17. Signatures, preceded by an em dash, are sometimes run in with last line of text. UPDATE (2019-10-01) There appears to be a PDF render of the ...


11

I, an ignorant, lazy, hubristic, and (most-importantly) impatient American, need to add this preface, so I will have enough letters for this to be counted as an answer. One word: Keyboard Please, before you take offense at my use of adjectives, read the second-to-last paragraph before the note about dıacrıtıcs ın English. Now that I've made this answer ...


11

Dan Bron's comment is exactly the features you're describing. You can consider this a typography example of negative space: Negative space, in art, is the space around and between the subject(s) of an image. Negative space may be most evident when the space around a subject, not the subject itself, forms an interesting or artistically relevant shape, and ...


10

We also refer to them as minuscules, though this is less common. Calling a letter small, lower-case or lowercase is clear and concise, and you should go by those.


10

In the Old English language that was spelled þæt. It was also abbreviated as a letter Thorn, þ, with the ascender crossed, ꝥ . Wikipedia: That


10

From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_(linguistics)#Prosodic_stress I didn't take the test yesterday. (Somebody else did.) I didn't take the test yesterday. (I did not take it.) I didn't take the test yesterday. (I did something else with it.) I didn't take the test yesterday. (I took a different one.) I didn't take the test yesterday. (I took ...


10

There's also the curious case of foreign words that normally wouldn't get diacriticals, but sometimes do in order to distinguish them from their English look-alikes. For example, the Japanese word sake, sometimes spelled saké.


9

During the late Middle Ages, two forms of 'v' developed, which were both used for its ancestor 'u' and modern 'v'. The pointed form 'v' was written at the beginning of a word, while a rounded form 'u' was used in the middle or end, regardless of sound. So whereas 'valor' and 'excuse' appeared as in modern printing, 'have' and 'upon' were printed 'haue' and '...


9

I'm asking if that quirk of orthography was possibly aided due to an alternate pronunciation of 'y' that reinforced it. No, there was no such alternate pronunciation. At the time that thee was still in heavy use in much of the English-speaking world, it was as different to the ears and eyes of English speakers as we and I are today in terms of the ...


9

It's a visual pun. Visual pun is quite a broad graphic design term. Somewhat inevitably, Buzzfeed has a list of visual puns which is as good a way of understanding the term as anything else. What's going on in your example - replacing characters of a logotype with a related image - is just one of many possible kinds of visual pun. There may well be a more ...


8

Your example seems to refer to an epigraph, which is a short passage normally used at the start of a book or chapter. There is no "single" answer. It depends entirely on the style guide or in-house style manual. The Chicago Manual of Style (13.36) says that An author may wish to include an epigraph—a quotation that is pertinent but not integral to the ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible