30

A lot depends on what style manual you follow. I follow Hart’s Rules at the University Press Oxford and according to Hart’s - Footnote references should be placed outside punctuation, but inside the closing parenthesis when referring to matter within parentheses. It makes no distinction between numeric or symbol footnotes. It makes no distinction ...


22

The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition (2003) has this entry under "Exclamation Point": 6.77 Exclamation rather than question. A question that is essentially an exclamation usually ends with an exclamation point. How could you possibly believe that! When will I ever learn! If we take this guidance seriously, it seems to me, then for ...


13

I don't normally answer my own questions, but in this case I feel compelled to do so. FumbleFingers' answer — the only answer this question has received* — while well-argued and not incorrect, feels like the answer of someone who is faced with a problem he recognizes but cannot solve, and so falls back on whatever has served in the past: in this case, the "...


12

I believe there is a comma after "read it" in the third example in Strunk and White's Elements of Style. I'm looking for a version of the book that does not include the serial comma in that example but haven't found one. Revision: I found one. It was a PDF copy of an older edition so I couldn't see the publication date. It appears that there was a typo ...


10

The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition (2003), has very clear preferences, which it lists at section 9.64 (rules paraphrased from a table): For ranges starting with a page number of 1 through 100 (or multiples of 100), use all digits of the end-range number: 3–10, 71–72, 96–117, 100–104, 1100–1113 For ranges starting with a page number of 101 ...


9

This is a style question. Some style guides specifically recommend lowercasing the plural form rivers in exactly the situation that the OP raises. For example, Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth Edition (2003) has this: 8.57 Mountains, rivers, and the like. Names of mountains, rivers, oceans, islands, and so forth are capitalized. The generic term (...


7

I realise this is an old post, but I was searching for guidance on this issue myself, and, unfortunately, things have changed. The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, now says (§6.2) that punctuation surrounding a word or phrase should be in the font of the surrounding text, unless the punctuation is part of the text in question (e.g., the movie title ...


7

Roman numerals are used specifically to enumerate the pages of the front matter — title page, foreword, etc. — whilst Arabic numerals are used to enumerate the pages of the rest of a book.


7

I thought readers might like to see how different style guides address the general question of how to position footnote callouts (termed "cues" in The Oxford Guide to Style, "note numbers" in The Chicago Manual of Style, and "references" in Words into Type). Here is a quick rundown of the relevant passages from one British and five U.S. style guides. From ...


6

Dictionary.reference.com doesn't list yearslong, but it does list yearlong. I think the more proper spelling would be years-long (and, to be honest, year-long as well).


6

While it's ultimately a matter of style and preference, I think the case for the period is very strong. The period makes the writing clearer without becoming a distraction, and that's what good punctuation should do. Using italics to distinguish the two kinds of tag questions works, but adding more punctuation creates more distraction. The only real ...


5

I've worked as a copy editor with numerous in-house style guides at different publishing houses, as well as with various style guides intended for a wider audience (Chicago, AP, MLA, Oxford, Words Into Type, Harvard Blue Book), and I can't recall ever having seen one that imposed an alternating-gender-pronoun approach. I have occasionally encountered this ...


4

I'm not sure it counts as a "definitive answer", but so far as I'm concerned punctuation can't be used to differentiate OP's two intonations (and hence, meanings). The standard rules of punctuation require the question mark to follow all constructions framed as questions, though style guides generally make exceptions for either/both of these types: The ...


4

You mention that your publisher requires Chicago Style citations. The Chicago Manual of Style, Chapter 7: Italics and Capitalization of Foreign Words (see sections 7.49 through 7.51 specifically) gives some guidance. There are also several existing questions here and particularly here that are related, and may help. Italicizing seems standard practice. ...


4

It isn't as true for isn't, I don't think. If I was writing for a formal audience, there are some contractions I'd avoid, and others I'd have no problem using. Some examples where I would NOT use the contraction: The experiment could've been set up differently. (use could have instead) This experiment's the first one of three that we ran. (use ...


4

Briefly put, Roman numerals are an alternate form of enumeration. It makes it easy to see the difference between the foreword and the actual content of the book. This is also the reason it's used in nested lists. The history is that page numbering and Arabic numerals started to become popular in English at about the same time. It wasn't until centuries ...


4

There are no strict rules governing the use of semicolons, and few consistent conventions. By and large the semicolon is used when you want to mark a disjunction as 'stronger' than one marked by a comma but not so strong as one marked by a full stop. One fairly routine use, for instance, is to distinguish successive list items which themselves require ...


4

The answer appears to be no. On page 22 of this sample reference list by the APA, there is an example of an article that ends in a question marks, just like yours (though it’s from a paper journal, not an online one): Ohnishi, T., Matsuda, H., Tabira, T., Asada, T., & Uno, M. (2001). Changes in brain morphology in Alzheimer’s disease and exaggerated ...


4

The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law (2002) offers an opinion that is very similar to the one Father Luke identifies in his answer: Capitalize the first word after a colon only if it is a proper noun or the start of a complete sentence: He promised this: The company will make good all the losses. But: There were three considerations: ...


4

Generally speaking, the lowercase spelling has the upperhand (ho, ho, ho) But according to Google books Ngram, the Brits use either indistinctively. However, Ngram is not really indicative of spelling preferences because many of the results are from book titles, where it is conventional to capitalise nearly every word. e.g More Than Just French Fries, Who ...


4

The most important thing in academic writing is that it is clear and concise. Boring is not a criterion. It is difficult to walk the line between being original (and interesting) and being credible and serious. I would say that it would be suitable to use the expression "bring to light". Just remember: it's better to be use the correct word instead of using ...


4

You start a sentence with a conjunction when you want to call a clause out for special emphasis. Examples: We finally won a game against Notre Dame. And our best player wasn't even in the game! You can come up with $500 to pay the fine. Or you can spend 30 days in jail. We were spent, bruised, broke, and bewildered. But at least we were home. As you ...


3

Here are two major U.S. style guides' recommendations with regard to the question you raise. From Words into Type, Third Edition (1974): If a question or an exclamation occurs within a question, both ending at the same time, retain the stronger mark. It is often hard to say which is the stronger mark, but the following sentences illustrate acceptable ...


3

It seems that when dealing with British/UK English conventions, the note number would be placed within the punctuation (comma, period, semicolon, etc.). When using US English, note numbers are generally placed outside of the punctuation. While there is no hard and fast rule as to one way or the other per se, I would advise consistency above all. Regardless ...


3

Most style guides recognize that the point of commas is to clarify meaning. Thus, Words Into Type (1974) argues as follows: A comma should be used only if it makes the meaning clearer or enables the reader to grasp the relation of parts more quickly. Intruded commas are worse than omitted ones, but keep in mind at all times that the primary purpose of the ...


3

"For a sincere and talented writer, all barriers to entry are finally removed because of the e-publishing phenomena, and that was only possible due to the Internet revolution pioneered by Tim Berners Lee in the early nineties" sounds OK to me (bear in mind that I am not a native speaker though). Moreover, if, as you asked, wanted to know what can you use in ...


3

There are plenty of good reasons not to use "whilst": It is identical to "while" in meaning, but because it's a rarer word, it distracts your reader. It has never been the norm. Dickens never uses it, and even Shakespeare uses it sparingly. Many style guides, including the BBC, the Guardian, the Economist, and the Canadian Hansard, advise simply to replace ...


3

Here's a quotation from the [Harrisburgh] Pennsylvania Reporter, reprinted in the Political Register (December 24, 1832), on the subject of South Carolina's pursuing the possibility of nullifying its membership in the United States: SOUTH CAROLINA. The ordinance and address recently adopted and put forth by a Convention of nullifiers in South ...


3

This is a style question, so there is no right answer unless it be that whatever style preference a publishing house insists on is the right answer. Still, there does seem to be a tendency in mainstream U.S. style guides to treat military units (companies, battalions, etc.) as part of a proper name when it appears with a particular identifying word, letter, ...


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