38

The reason for "the" is that this refers to a particular 3.5 bn year limit, i.e. the specific one that was mentioned in the previous research. You may object that there aren't distinct 3.5 bn years ago eras - there can only be one. Logically that is true but sometimes usage overrides logic. So we could say 3.5 billion years ago, there was volcanic ...


16

This is so because "3.5 bn years" is determined by the that-clause (that is the estimate derived…) and that it is a unique possibility. This is not the bundle (that) they showed to you. (unique) This is not a bundle (that) they showed to you. (not unique) The determination can result from other circumstances. This is during the first hour on the ...


11

Previous studies suggested that volcanic activity on The Moon ended about 3.5bn years ago. The analysis of recently collected rocks, however, have lead scientists to suspect volcanic activity ended after the accepted 3.5hn years. "the" refers to the previous estimate, 3.5bn years.


4

The phrases "3.5bn years ago" and "the estimate derived from studies of currently available samples" are in apposition to each other - both refer to the same thing. You can leave out the first "the" by separating the two phrases with a comma: ... until far more recently than 3.5bn years ago, the estimate derived from studies of ...


4

The joys of prepositions! You may jump from a ship, from a train, from a step, from a height. You jumped in a direction whose starting point is defined by "from". You may also jump off them. You were on; after you jump you are off. You may do something "at the right time": it is done when the time is right. "at" refers to a ...


3

Take a look at the following progression. In Tahiti, there is a cyclone. [In the active] In Tahiti, there is not a cyclone. [In the negative but in the active still] In Tahiti, there has not been a cyclone. [In the active past perfect] In Tahiti, there has not been a cyclone for 12 years. [In the active, still] Rephrased, it is as follows. There has not ...


3

Your sentences is not in the least bit “passive”. To show you what a passive version would be, we will posit that: To storm something is the transitive verb that acts upon something, as in storming the beaches of Normandy. Cyclones is the grammatical agent directing that action. Tahiti is the grammatical patient being acted upon by that action. Then it ...


2

come to one's senses to begin to think in a sensible or correct way after being foolish or wrong MerriamWebster In the end, I came to my senses and gave it up for good. // once and for all. Please note that "once and for all", and "for good" are different idioms.


2

Whiter Yes the answer is "whiter" and it is very easy to remember if you listen to the lyrics of this famous song. And so it was that later As the miller told his tale That her face, at first just ghostly, Turned a whiter shade of pale" A Whiter Shade of Pale (Procol Harum) 1967 with lyrics More white This collocation is of course possible ...


2

Put one's hand in one's pocket is an informal way of referring to spending money. It doesn't mean 'give something to someone', although of course that could be the reason for the expense. Your sentence is OK as a colloquial way of saying that one man decided to pay for something for another man.


2

Yet, (conjunction) as an adult, (parenthetical phrase) I have come (subject/verb) to demand (prepositional phrase modifying "come") of any really “great” book (prepositional phrase modifying "demand") a self-consciousness (object of "demand") about the tenuous nature (prepositional phrase modifying "self-...


2

I agree with the comment by @Ram Pillai. What may be puzzling to you is the verb-subject inversion. Usually in a statement in English, we would say, "creatures crawl", not "crawl creatures". In everyday English, this sentence would be easier to understand if it were Scattered among the leaves, we can see creatures (called Zeepers) that ...


2

One literally chips away at something made of wood, stone, etc, which is too large to break or remove in one blow. This is often done with a chisel using repeated blows which cause chips to break off the mass being attacked. We can use the expression figuratively to talk about reducing a large problem in small steps. Davidai is chipping away at calming his ...


2

If someone asks me how many bananas I have, and I say "I think I have seven", and then they ask me how many oranges I have, and I say "I think I have seven", the number "seven" has appeared twice, but it's not the same seven. They refer to different things and might be obtained from different sources and have different levels of ...


2

John has already introduced himself (I am John how are you?). Why not say 'Let me introduce the subject of my call/our meeting. I am working...'?


1

No, "In Tahiti there has not been a cyclone for 12 years" is not passive. I believe it follows the syntax rule for passive voice: to be + past participle The passive voice is usually formed with a form of to be, along with the past participle form of another verb. "Been" is the past participle of be, so your sentence doesn't meet the ...


1

In passive voice, the verb is generally the copula ("be"), and the "true" subject follows the verb. For instance, in "The book was found by the student", grammatically the subject is "the book", but since the student is who actually performed the action, there is some sense that they are the "true" subject. ...


1

The sentence is referring to one activity, with the body in a position, and with a feeling that the person is having while doing it. The activity is reading. The position is "sitting" or "seated". (In England they would even say "you could be sat here".) The feeling is one of these: depression, anxiety, or discouragement. It may ...


1

A paraphrase in plainer language could be: "I think a great book should be careful. All representations of reality are fragile, and the reader should get some sense of that. Detailed description should come with some link to the bigger picture. A book should be aware of how we are all guided by shared ideas we rarely question." Unlike some of the ...


1

C is correct. This is the original: You enter .... You are shown .... We can combine these two related sentences with a coordinating conjugation: You enter ..., and you are shown .... But since the subjects are the same, we can elide the second one and combine the clauses into one compound predicate: You enter ... and are shown .... Answer D is not ...


1

You might cut up the sentence into small sentences each containing one idea or two, at most, and connect them through the use of key words and pronouns. This meant communications had to be relayed by a satellite which had been cunningly located for the purpose at a place where the interaction of the gravitational fields of Earth and Moon meant it could ...


1

This feels wrong to me. The below feels OK: than the 3.5bn years [no ago] that is the estimate derived from studies of currently available samples. As does: than [no the] 3.5bn years ago, (that/which) is the estimate derived from studies of currently available samples. Specifically, I would say *the* 3.5bn years ago basically feels wrong in the original....


1

The format usually describes a kind of logical or physical container for content, as in LP or EP format (the format here describes the length of music that the item can hold). If you see a document prepared a certain way, you might say that it's in APA format. In those cases, you would not say APA formatting or EP formatting. So, in your examples: Filter to ...


1

'Putting one's hand in one's pocket' is a common phrase that means spending one's own money but only as long as the phrase fits contextually. Also, this phrase doesn't mean you're giving someone something but you're spending something for yourself or others. Your two sentences... He put his hand in his pocket and bought it for the guy. I'll have to put my ...


1

It doesn't work at all. If you are going to say "It's a well known fact that 《something》and 《something else》" then, if it's going to be grammatical and make sense then "It's a well known fact that 《something else》 " needs to be a proper sentence. The reason for this is that the word 'and' links 《something else》back to the start of the ...


1

You need parallelism (not always an essential, but certainly in this case) in the sentence: It is well known that social media platforms can make it easier to communicate with others and that this form of communication is fast and convenient. = It is well known [that social media platforms can make it easier to communicate with others] and [that this form ...


1

Both words may be used as adjectives. I was tired describes me as being tired (by work, exercise, boredom, etc). I was studied describes me as being studied (by a doctor, a psychologist, an anthropologist etc). I was studied English makes no sense because studied is used as a verb and the verbal noun phrase “studied English” is meaninglessly adjectival when ...


1

Your sentence structure is: Someone gave (to) Somebody else Something as Role. Consider the following: Alex gave Arnold some worms as bait. Bob gave Barry a degree as Principal. In the first instance, the worm (not Alex) is the bait. In the second, Bob (not the degree) is the principal. Context matters a great deal in these kinds of sentences. In your ...


1

From the dictionary.com definition of "blastoff" the launching of a rocket, guided missile, or spacecraft. Blasting off is the process if launching something, in your example it's referring to spacecraft that would carry water to the Moon.


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