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94

This is commonly denoted as optional: available as a choice but not required (source: Merriam-Webster) Another example: The definition of a method, constructor, indexer, or delegate can specify that its parameters are required or that they are optional. Any call must provide arguments for all required parameters, but can omit arguments for optional ...


56

My suggestion is that at the first mention of the word atom, you add a qualifier like neutral and/or ionized. For example, you can use one of the following constructions: ...neutral or ionized atoms... ...both neutral and ionized atoms... ...atoms, whether neutral or ionized, ... ...atoms, both neutral and ionized, ... After that, just use the word atom. ...


47

The word "interstice" comes to mind. I'm a biology graduate and we referred to the space between the body's tissues as the interstitial space. Interstice — ODO (noun) usually interstices ; An intervening space, especially a very small one "sunshine filtered through the interstices of the arching trees"


36

Speaking from a statistical perspective, it is definitely possible to create factual statements that have a bias. It's important to keep in mind the definition here: noun         prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair. I submit ...


27

Something that is allowed to be missing is omissible. Wordreference.com defines omissible as: capable of being or allowed to be omitted https://www.wordreference.com/definition/omissible In English grammar the object relative pronoun is omissible: The book (that) I wanted to buy was sold-out.


21

These diseases are known as anthroponoses (adjective form: anthroponotic) Anthroponoses (Greek “anthrópos” = man, “nosos” = disease) are diseases transmissible from human to human. Examples include rubella, smallpox, diphtheria, gonorrhea, ringworm (Trichophyton rubrum), and trichomoniasis. NVZ also provided this link to anthroponoses in my ...


19

You can probably use "support network" - I think people use it often now to mean their friends and family. (USA)


14

My brain eventually suggested that 'dynamic' refers to something changing (i.e. non-static), while 'dynamical' refers to something involving dynamics. Searching along these lines, I think this answer really hits it (english.stackexchange.com/a/31650/23771). To motivate the need, or validity, of this distinction, consider a typical (scientific) example, '...


14

The usual mathematical terms for these things (from the study of modal logic) are 'necessary' (for your 'guaranteed') and 'possible' (for your 'allowed'). All you need is negation to get all four possiblities. necessary - it must exist possible - it may exist not necessary - it may not exist not possible - it cannot exist Depending on your (choice of) ...


12

It is, because mortality is made definite by associated with it. When such modification occurs after the noun, it is known as 'cataphoric'.


12

You are mishearing the instructor. He is saying "a sub n" and "i sub c", where "sub" is short for "subscript". If the symbols are written with a superscript, like an and Ic, then the spoken version is "a sup n" and "i sup c", where "sup" is pronounced like "soup", and is short for "superscript".


12

According to http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pool, the word "pool" meaning a body of water and the word "pool" meaning an aggregation are different words with different etymologies. Wiktionary agrees: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pool#Etymology_1 and http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pool#Etymology_2. The second etymology explains that the word ...


12

I would think the word "biased" should apply to a person, and only one who has some obligation to be neutral. However, a selection of facts can be biased. If you cherry-pick only the best or only the worst aspects of any entity, even if each fact is true in isolation, the impression can be misleading. For example, supporters of Obama like to say, "He ...


12

I haven't found any common factor distinguishing the elements with names ending in -ium from the elements with names ending in another letter followed by -um. It seems fairly arbitrary, and in fact there was some variation historically between forms ending in -ium and -um for tantalum and lanthanum (and there is still variation between aluminium and aluminum ...


11

Some examples: ...as shown in Fig. X ...as seen in Fig. X (or ...as can be seen in Fig. X) ...which is evident in Fig. X Fig. X shows... The data in Table X indicates that ... If you have some certainty where the figure or table will be relative to the text, you can use phrases such as: ...as seen in the figure to the left... (to the right, on the ...


11

There are facts and there are "facts" - with the latter, the quotes around it can be called 'scare quotes' ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scare_quotes ) - they are a way of saying "so called", ie implying that they are not facts at all. Presenting misinformation or outright lies as "facts" is such a common practise for people (or newspapers etc) trying to ...


11

Capillary action Capillary action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, capillary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capillary_action I also heard capillary elevation. There are many explanations and ...


10

Most likely, it's derived from the common short form of the unit, amp (pronounced /ˈæmp/), which is obviously derived by shortening ampere. Then, in speech, the /p/ gets elided from the awkward /mpm/ sequence of *ampmeter, giving the current pronunciation. (I don't know why the p was deleted in spelling, though. Perhaps it was filtered through a language ...


10

There is a concept in graphic design known as negative space which I think covers your intended meaning perfectly - Wikipedia has a decent article on it.


10

This question is confusing as hell, but I think "unnecessary" or any of its synonyms might fit, depending on what you mean exactly, as I'm confused. Something is allowed. (allowed to exist) Something is unnecessary (allowed to be missing) You also have the condition: Also, if I say that something is not ??? (allowed to be missing), then it is ...


9

Both “in a nutshell” and “hot topic” are phrases more informal than one expects to find anywhere in a thesis (although language may be more relaxed in places, such as the Acknowledgements section). Consider rephrasing “in a nutshell” to briefly or in brief or in short. Rather than “hot topic” consider variations using phrases like “a subject undergoing ...


9

Kith and Kin Wiktionary: both friends and family Meriam Webster: friends and kindred If you prefer to sound less medieval, friends and relations would probably do,


8

Ampère, named after André-Marie Ampère, is first attested in the Oxford English Dictionary in the same year, 1881, as the term was adopted by the Paris Electric Congress. Ammeter appears a year later. In that short time, it rather looks as if the phonetical process of elision became reflected in the word’s spelling. Elision occurs when a sound is lost by the ...


8

How about "interspace"? noun ˈɪntəspeɪs/ 1. a space between things. "the narrow interspaces between cells" I think in all its simplicity "void" would also work well for your purpose.


8

When mathematicians use the phrase X and Y determine Z, they mean that, given X and Y, a unique Z exists. Thus, if one believes that the standard rules about the passive construction apply here, there is determined an object Z would mean that a unique object Z exists, so it is certainly not a synonym for "there exists". I wouldn't even use it in ...


8

You may be thinking of moiré patterns. These are interference patterns produced by the interaction of two or more fixed patterns. The fixed patterns can either be static or moving relative to each other. Moiré patterns were quite a large part of the op art {not to be confused with pop art} movement of the 1960s.


8

particle I admit particle is a pretty overloaded term, which indeed is very often applied to subatomic world, but I don't think that precludes its use for molecular/atomic level entities. The following BBC example for Chemistry students below seems to say same... Ions are electrically charged particles formed when atoms lose or gain electrons. They have the ...


8

Salsburg appears to be wrong. The OED gives meaning 2: "That has or conveys a particular meaning; that signifies or indicates something." from 1573; and meaning 4a: " Sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy; consequential, influential." from 1642. He might of course be right that meaning 4a was less common until the 20th ...


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