16

None of them are incorrect. English sense verbs, unlike most complement-taking verbs, can take either gerund or infinitive complements. I saw/heard him leave/leaving. This is most common with long-distance senses, of course; -- She smelled him leaving is a fairly unlikely (though not ungrammatical) thing to say. It may be (and undoubtedly some people ...


16

Imagine you have a collection of objects including a sword, one day you can't see the sword and you don't know where it's gone, then you can say "The sword is missing", meaning it's absent. Now imagine you had a sword and you gave it to someone, or you got rid of it, the point being you know where it's gone and you don't have it. You see a snake in your ...


14

As for the pronoun, both him and his -- respectively, the ACC-ing complementizer and the POSS-ing complementizer, as they're called in the trade -- are acceptable as the subject of the gerund complement clause. POSS-ing is slightly more formal and more often written, and may be claimed to be "more grammatical" or "the only correct choice" or something of ...


12

tl;dr Despite running being in origin the -ING inflection of the verb to run, in your “a running experiment” example, it is no longer a verb and therefore ᴄᴀɴɴᴏᴛ be either a gerund or a participle either. A rule of thumb is that “No verb = No gerund–participle”. Here it’s almost certainly an adjective because it passes the Predicate Test, but it may under ...


11

Titles of films are often phrases rather than complete sentences. In this case, "Lucifer Rising" is an example. Grammatically, this is a noun phrase, composed of a noun “Lucifer,” and an -ing verb form “Rising.” Traditionally in English, there are two grammatical classifications for the -ing verb form – it’s called a “gerund” when it’s used like a ...


10

Starting a sentence with a word ending in -ing is perfectly ordinary, accepted, unremarkable English. Beginning, middle, or end of a paragraph; gerund, participle, or simply a word with that particular spelling— it does not matter. Living in an English-speaking environment, you would quickly realize that there is no proscription against it, as it is natural ...


9

These sentences are fine, because the -ing form is used as an adjective: "She reached her hand out, wanting to touch him..." "Not wanting to talk about it, Clary turned..." What your English teachers probably meant was that ordinarily we do not use these stative verbs in progressive constructions, like this: "I am wanting to ask ...


9

France being an example is one of the many ways that English has of tagging an example of a general phenomenon. Giving examples is the principal way writers identify what they're referring to by a general term like continental Europe. First, in speech, France being an example, and all the other variants below, are pronounced with a distinctly lower ...


9

In your examples, "enlightening" is best seen as an adjective and "running" as a VP comprising a gerund-participle form of the verb as head. Taking "running" first: it fails the usual tests for adjectivehood: (a) it can’t be modified by "very" (* The very running man); (b) it can’t occur as complement to complex-intransitive verbs like "become" (* It ...


8

The phrase “appearances can be deceiving” is idiomatic. It is a proverb meaning “things can look different from the way they really are”.¹


8

British English doesn't use the spelling centering; it’s always centring. As to pronunciation, it’s two syllables, or maybe two-and-a-half with the hint of a schwa, /ˈsɛntriŋ/ /ˈsɛntᵊriŋ/. Spelling the word with a third syllable looks odd because we don’t spell it that way and we don’t say it that way either. Spelling and pronunciation are linked, but it’s ...


8

This form of the verb is conventionally called a gerund. From the outside, a gerund works partly like a noun, because it can be the object of a verb, just like a normal noun: Agnes suggested sending off a balloon. Agnes suggested group therapy. Both the gerund phrase and the normal noun phrase have the same function in the main clause, that of an object. ...


7

It requires a comma because including is the subordinating conjunction for the dependent clause. Notice that if you DON'T put a comma there, you are essentially qualifying the moral issues upon which he has written as only those that include poverty ("moral issues including poverty"), in which case "globalization, and euthanasia" becomes one of two things: ...


6

First of all, you are wrong. Gerunds and infinitives are not time dependent and could be used in the present, past or future. That said, the use of gerund v. infinitive is an important topic and is often difficult to tell when to use one over the other, as it would depend on the context and intention of the writer. Sometimes, they could be used ...


6

Both Gerund and Infinitive Subject Complements can be Extraposed -- inserting a dummy It -- with the predicate adjective (be) fun. (For Indef) To write English letters is fun. ~ It is fun to write English letters. (Indef('s)) Writing English letters is fun. ~ It is fun writing English letters. This is not necessarily true with other predicates, which all ...


6

The ACC-ing structure may be more appropriate than the POSS-ing structure on occasion, and vice versa. We watched him leaving the building to see if he remembered to lock up. We expected his leaving the company to take place long before it actually did. The variant with him focuses more on the person, the variant with his more on the event. In the above ...


6

OP correctly gets the appearance = attendance allusion, but that's just a lead-in to the writer's main purpose - "wordplay" based on the (surprisingly recent, but now commonplace) saying... (That's the American corpus in Google Books. The British preference is the other way around)... It's important to note that the writer only uses appearances for the ...


6

The usual English verb for supervision is administer. The variant forms administrate and admin are both used primarily in technical jargon, mostly in reference to computer system administration. This Ngram shows that they see very little use in general English compared to administer. It's not at all unusual to use -’d instead of -ed for forming the past ...


6

This is admittedly a construction where the distinction between participles and gerunds is at its weakest. No grammatical distinction works out 100 % of the time. However, in traditional dependency grammar, this is probably analysed as a participle by most people. The reason for that choice is that it is very similar to the way the verb go can take ...


6

This is a strange theory that is provably wrong. It is easy to trace "I am working" back to determine that it has not developed from "I am at working", and it is obvious that the rheinische Verlaufsform is different from the English Present Progressive in other ways, not just the preposition. For starters, it uses the nominalized bare infinitive, and it uses ...


6

The distinction between a participle and a gerund is troublesome. It looks as if the difference is to do with parts of speech or something similar. In fact, the real distinction has to do with the grammatical relations (syntactic functions). In traditional grammar, a gerund is an -ing form of a verb that heads a phrase functioning as a: Subject of a clause ...


6

"The ability to be able" is still a bit redundant, right? How about these examples? "Happiness is not the absence of problems, but rather" being able to deal with them. Or, "Happiness is not the absence of problems, but rather" having the ability to deal with them. Either of these examples is grammatically correct and avoids the redundancy. Good ...


6

I never used the terms "gerund" and "participle" when I was learning syntax, nor when I was teaching it, so I think we could easily do without those terms. However, on the other hand, I don't see a problem with the terminology, provided that one is careful. For the English forms derived from verbs by adding "-ing", there are: A. nouns. These take ...


6

Next door is properly placed. It modifies the guy, so it's part of the subject NP. If you move next door it becomes a modifier on something else. I was thankful for the guy shoveling snow next door from my driveway—next door would probably be taken to modify the predicate, designating the place where he performed the shoveling; but it might modify snow, ...


5

You spell it with one ‹t› because if it were spelt with two, it would rhyme with hitting instead of with fighting. As for how “hard” your ‹t› is, compare these: writing [ˈɹʷʌɪɾɪŋ] written [ˈɹʷɪʔn̩] riding [ˈɹʷaɪɾɪŋ] ridden [ˈɹʷɪɾn̩] tighten [ˈtʰʌɪʔn̩] photon [ˈfoʊˌtʰɑn] Notice how only the last one has a “real” ‹t› in the middle of it. Edit: Integrating ...


5

'Appealing to' and 'Appealing for' are different. One appeals to someone (a person, an institution, a court, a foundation etc) to do something. The other appeals for something ( a benefit, a ruling, funds, help, etc). I am appealing to you to accept my answer. I am appealing for points as I do not have many. '... choose a time that is appealing to you' '......


5

After some research I came across this remarkable academic document "On the progression of the progressive in early Modern English - icame": Please, read especially page 7, I think this is the actual puzzle piece we're looking for! Here some excerpts: "... There seems to be pretty general agreement that at least as far as form is concerned it derives most ...


5

English has no such rule regarding gerunds. I'd be interested to know what language does.


5

"We are currently in the process of finishing planning for the outage." There can be grammatical constraints on some types of double "-ing" phrases. I'll mention some of them here, and let you decide how applicable they are to your example. Double -ing constraint: CGEL page 1243-4: The double-ing constraint Some verbs that license ...


5

"I'll put you on the waiting list" - US & UK. Slightly commoner in UK than in US. "I'll put you on the wait list" - Almost exclusively US; much rarer than 'waiting list'. (Data source: Google Ngram viewer; corpuses: British English 2009, American English 2009) Are you sure you mean visiting card (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visiting_card ) rather ...


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