24

One American dialect where you can say Mary book rather than Mary's book, is African American Vernacular English, spoken mainly in the African American community. See this article. An excerpt: Possession in AAVE is also different. It can be shown by proximity where the owner’s name comes before the object owned. For instance, “She over Mary house” (...


17

The omission of the possessive suffix is very common in many Caribbean dialects. Here's a short excerpt from an article on Trinidadian folk speech that happens to include your "Mary book" example: With regard to expressing the possessive concept, inflectional suffixation is completely lost in the folk speech. Standard English marks possession in nouns ...


12

No, the Merriam-Webster example is not wrong. As far as Fowler, because he is a prescriptivist, I'm not sure it makes sense to call him 'wrong'. So he's advocating a ban on gerund-participials after as well as. Well, all I can say is that such a blanket ban would go against very solidly established usage, and that there is nothing intrinsically ...


8

I cannot offer a systematic treatment of this subject, but I have found one interesting data point, English Grammar Simplified, Its Study Made Easy by James C Fernald, LHD (1916, which, alas, predates your source by three years only). To show that this is clearly a text from the prescriptive school, I quote Dr Fernald's preface: The facts of correct ...


5

Here's my two cents on the subject. Interestingly the ngram viewer doesn't find a single occurrence of are my two cents. The actual book search does however. Guess those books are not part of the corpus ngram is based on. However there is a clear rising trend of 's my two cents (top four of all phrases ending in my two cents) and here's my two cents. (...


5

"Being he" and "To be he", despite their awkwardness, do seem to have been traditionally prescribed by at least some grammar-guide authors in sentences where there is no preceding subject of any kind. (However, Peter Shor's answer indicates that this was not universal; some authors apparently thought the accusative would be better in some contexts.) New ...


4

I'd posit that the "here's..." version is preferable, on various grounds. As the OP suggests, the implied meaning is "here's my two cents worth". In fact this idiom is likely derived from (or at least cognate to) the common British English expression: Here's my tuppenceworth (Tuppence = 'two pennies'). https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/tuppence_worth#...


4

The book Higher Lessons in English: A work on English Grammar and Composition, in Which the Science of Language is Made Tributary to the Art of Expression, by Reed and Kellogg, published in 1878, goes into great detail on the grammar of whether you should use the nominative or objective case with forms of the verb to be. The primary rule for which case to ...


4

The reason some native speakers have a knee-jerk reaction whenever they identify and see a "comma splice" is because their English teachers drummed it into them that it was wrong. Just like they drummed it into them that ending a sentence with a preposition was wrong and that beginning one with 'and' or 'but' was wrong. It may be that things like these ...


3

This is called a zero possessive and it is fairly strongly argued by some linguists that it is not (as others have it) "lazy", merely dialectal, or indeed even incorrect. Rather, it is the correct grammar of creoles such as Trinidadian Creole; and a form, moreover, that is considered the origin of the same construct in AAVE and what has been termed Black ...


3

If this is a rule, it is one of fairly recent vintage. Looking in Google books, I find in Exposition of the Grammatical Structure of the English Language, by John Mulligan (New York, 1857) the quote: But when we say This musician sings as well as plays, the meaning is altogether different, where here the book is contrasting this with the sentence This ...


3

Perhaps you're looking for the word vernacular, which is the language spoken by ordinary people in a particular region. This is entirely determined by day-to-day usage, and can include slang, expression that aren't strictly grammatical, and the like.


3

This particular rule of matching the conjugation of the verb with the declension of the noun, particularly when we're talking about groups, can trip up native English speakers, too. To further confuse issues, it is sometimes allowable for group nouns or zero counts to be matched with either the singular or plural form of a verb. The team of scientists is ...


2

End-weight is definitely a linguistic term, not just a stylistic term. END-WEIGHT (after Quirk et al. 1972) refers to the tendency of heavier constituents to be localized later in sentences, all else being equal, as documented extensively for English and several other languages (though some languages exhibit the opposite, beginning-weight ...


2

The closest word I can think of is idiomatic. Using, containing, or denoting expressions that are natural to a native speaker. en.oxforddictionaries.com


2

The rule is painful as far as code is concerned because the choice between 'a' or 'an' is based on whether it sounds like a vowel is at the start of the word rather than the actual spelling. For example, as mentioned in a similar question: "A united states citizen, a unique opportunity but an uncle" This means that any code needs to determine what the word ...


2

Given that this is correct: I just barely remembered that 『he was still “she”』 back then. It follows directly that you must use subject case for both subject and predicate: I don’t remember 『who is who』. The thing you’re remembering — 『the syntactic constituent』 — is the entire clause, and pronouns within that clause always take the case ...


2

The sentence isn't ok. There are some problems with the spelling and grammar, including comma splices, and some redundant redundancies that are redundant in a redundant fashion. He started off in his truck, but fire was spreading everywhere and partway to the school his wife, wildly fearful, convinced him to turn back to their house. He can head to ...


2

The reason there is a debate, and such a strong debate, is that it is a matter of preference - whether to use a semicolon, as was most common in English writing previously; or whether to state independent clauses with a comma splice. And human nature being what it is, there is a tendency - when matters of preference are in consideration - for parties on ...


2

I am grateful to all, especially, those who have posted their answers, expressed their views through comments and edited my question to make it more attractive and catchy. Still I am nowhere near a final conclusion as to what verb form should I use after as well as. However, after reading the following excerpt from “A Grammar of Contemporary English by ...


2

They are separate forms because although they share the same shape, they belong in distinct subclasses within the paradigm. Importantly, a distinction is necessary since the present tense plain heads finite VPs, while the plain form heads non-finite ones; hence the contrast between primary and secondary forms. Note that the verb "be" has distinct shapes ...


2

Books employing the particular terminology that Barth echoes in the cited passage from The End of the Road seem to have flourished between about 1917 and about 1943. A Google Books search for the multiple terms included in Barth's paragraph six such texts from this 27-year period—but the first of these is so clearly presented that you may not need to consult ...


1

For the most part, you are right: it should be [1] There are no longer enough natural resources to support economic growth. However, if the style is informal and the verb is cliticized to the subject, many speakers would use the third person singular: [2] There's no longer enough natural resources to support economic growth. This naturally raises the ...


1

The question is ambiguous, it sounds as if you are actually looking for the tense of the verb rather than the verb itself. It would help us if you stated the specific use case. In the generic sense, the tense breaks down according to choice of usage, as noted by @Nigel J: 1) "As well as" used as a conjunction: Present continuous 2) "As well as" used for ...


1

With commas it makes a different sense. The commas show that the writer wants you to lower your voice when you say ",who shouted in the street," because the writer wants that to be additional information. The writer could have written "The children were not from our school. They shouted in the street," but that would not be so neat. If you are the writer, ...


1

All your sentences are grammatically correct, though they differ in meaning from your teacher's versions. eg: "Did you walk on the road, or on the pavement?" "I walked on the road." "How did you get to the café?" "I walked across the road." "The ball rolled on/off the floor." 'Off' implies it went from the floor to some other surface; both are ...


1

A gerund e.g wearing (of skirts) is a noun, and they behave more or less in the same way as other nouns. E.g. they can be qualified by adjectives, possessive pronouns etc. David Beckham's wearing of a sarong was unusual for a footballer, and some felt that it reflected his being comfortably in touch with female as well as male characteristics in his ...


1

Yes, we can; it's very nice style, too. Source: I, who write and read a lot of good English P.S. You can add "my" to that sentence but it sounds a bit contrived. Might sound less so with "my own."


1

"I love my cooking fish(Here my is unnecessary?)" Depending on the intended meaning, yes and no. You could re-write without 'my' like follows: I love cooking fish This means the person simply loves cooking fish (the fish could belong to the person, or the fish may not belong to them). If you wanted to use 'my' to signify that the fish belonged to ...


1

If you say "The shopping is sometimes done by him", it's a simple statement of fact. Let's say that there's a "him" and a "her" in this situation. Sometimes he does it, sometimes she does it. Simple. However, if you say "The shopping sometimes is done by him" it moves the focus onto the word "is", which in turn implies that it has previously been ...


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