This is an interesting example of how grammatical analysis and formalism may create a line of reasoning that is more obscure and more complex than the prototype.
The Cambridge account is akin to my describing why we draw our hand back when catching a cricket ball, by using all the specialist terms of energy, force, impact, momentum, friction and interatomic ...
Using will in the apodosis normally requires a real protasis,not an unreal protasis
SUMMARY: To use will in the "then" part, you cannot have a hypothetical in the "if" part.
Consider these possibilities, all grammatical but none what you say you want to do. Please pay special attention to the combinations in which the set-in-bold word ...
Yes, the past tense (the preterite) is used in this way in English also. When used in such a way, it is said to express modal remoteness.
Here is an example (CGEL, p.85):
 ii If he took the later plane tonight he wouldn't have to rush.
CGEL then compares it to
 ii If he takes the later plane tonight he won't have to rush.
It should be HUNG, drawn and quartered. It's all about transitive and intransitive verbs. It's 'hung' because the act involved cutting someone down from the scaffold while they were still alive to be then disembowelled. Had the victim died in the in the noose, then it would be 'hanged'. Sadly, they were kept alive for maximum gruesomeness.
It is not a "rule" that the past perfect should always be the first/earliest/earlier action. It is guidance only. Do not try to make the language fit "rules".
The guidance applies to main clauses.
b) They waited quietly till he had finished;
c) She had come before he phoned over
till he had finished and before he phoned over are ...
No - "You lost me" is a colloquial phrase and your suggestion, while understandable, sounds bizarre.
Note that "you lost me" is informal and might, but doesn't necessarily, suggest that the person trying to explain something to you isn't doing a good job. Use with some caution!