73

Of boughten the OED writes: boughten, ppl. a. [irreg. f. bought ppl. a. by assimilation to foughten] = bought ppl. a. used poet. for the sake of metre, otherwise only dial. and in U.S. in application to purchased as opposed to home-made articles. Under the OED’s entry for buy, in the section on that verb’s inflections and their historical spellings, at ...


50

Override is formed from the irregular verb ride. The Principal Parts of ride are ride, rode, ridden. That means the PPs of override are override, overrode, overridden. With me so far? OK, the first PP in each case is the Infinitive form (to ride, to override). The second PP is the Past form (They rode it, They overrode it) The third PP is the Perfect ...


41

The biggest difference between the two forms—and one so obvious that neither of the earlier two answers points it out—is that proved is used in the simple past tense, whereas proven is not: Euclid proved [not proven] the proposition with remarkable economy and rigor. Another big difference involves the historical status of the two words: For much of the ...


35

The word open can be an adjective describing the door, or it could be a verb, which can be in the past, future, or present tense. Open in your first example is an adjective meaning "not closed or blocked up." (There are other meanings to open as well.) The same pertains to the second example. Someone has a file that is open, not closed. If you did the ...


33

I would use quit, as it is more readily understood by people. Dictionary.com indicates that both are plausible. Merriam Webster says the same. Looking through Google books, quitted seems to be used synonymously with left, e.g., Plato quitted Athens, where he was adored as a god ... I quitted Manchester, I quitted Mrs. ++++++++, I quitted ++++++++ hall ....


31

Mark it as accessed. Date last accessed is a very common phrase in computing. Access — M-W verb To open or load (a computer file, an Internet site, etc.) "accessed the computer by phone" Access — Macmillan verb 1. To get information, especially from a computer "The database allows you to access the sales figures in a number of ways."


23

This is an interesting question, because although it looks as if the two alternative sentences are very similar, they are, in actual fact, completely different constructions. First let's consider: The discovery has excited scientists. This has the clause structure: Subject, Predicator, Object (where predicator is the function carried out by the verb) ...


22

This article (emphasis mine) would be hard to improve on: As past participles of get, got and gotten both date back to Middle English. The form gotten is not used in British English but is very common in North American English, though even there it is often regarded as non-standard. In North American English, got and gotten are not identical in ...


20

The feeling connected with a lack of satisfaction can have two different components: A sense of incompleteness, which leaves one feeling unsatisfied A sense of wrongness, which leaves one feeling dissatisfied Naturally, both senses may overlap in certain situations. Take the following example: John's father was unsatisfied by the principal's explanation ...


19

You seem to be asking two different questions. Of Copular Complements The first is how an adjective like half-sunken can apply to a verb in your sentence. The answer is that it doesn’t, because lie is here functioning more like a copula. It just serves to link the subject with a predicate description of that subject. Some writers prefer the term “semi-...


19

Did more past participles use to end with -n? Yes. In Old English, strong verbs took the "-en" suffix in order to form the past participle: The past participle was formed using a dental suffix for class 1 and 3 weak verbs ("-ed", "-t", or "-d", depending on the verb), and "-od" for class 2 weak verbs. Strong verbs took the suffix "-en" and the ...


18

The door is open. ("open" is used here as an adjective. It means it is not closed) The door was opened by Mark. ("opened" is used here as a passive form of verb. Mark did the work) The door is closed. ("closed" is used here as an adjective. It means it is not open. It doesn't matter if it was closed by itself or Mark closed it, the word should be "closed") ...


17

New verbs normally occur as regular verbs, so you'd expect past tense and past participle texted. However, for reasons of phonology, some speakers may produce the past tense and past participle as text. Only time will tell which form wins. Perhaps they'll remain alternatives. Although the current meaning of text is new, it first occurred as a verb around ...


16

Confusing perverse and perverted seems to be a fairly common error in English. Of the sites that explain the difference, Ginger seems to have the most concise definitions: Perverse: Marked by a disposition to oppose and contradict Perverted: (of sexual behavior) showing or appealing to bizarre or deviant tastes As this site explains, neither word ...


16

It depends what you mean by “correct”. Different varieties of English — e.g. standard US English, or standard British English, or various regional dialects — work differently. He snuck round the back is correct in US English, but not in British English, where it would be He sneaked round the back. From a linguistic point of view, ‘correct’ means that some ...


15

Gimme a break. In this instance, "What do you got" is a false orthographicalization of colloquial "Whadayagot", which in turn is a perfectly normal elision of formal "What have you got". A step less elided would be "What've you got"; a step more elided would be "Whatchagot?" It only looks strange or improper because the writer/transcriber made it look so. ...


15

A Tale of Two Verbs Strong awake/awoke vs. weak awaken/awakened The answer is fairly complicated at the detail level, but the short story is that there were two different verbs, one strong (call this the alpha version: awake, awoke, and sometimes awoken) and the other weak (call this the beta version: awaken, awakened). Both are formed from the original ...


15

Personally, I've used both versions. Nevertheless: Belated birthday is nonsense, since the anniversary is the anniversary, and cannot be postponed even if the celebrations are. Belated happy birthday, strictly, is also nonsense because the birthday has already gone and may or may not have been happy. Therefore I would suggest something along the lines of: ...


15

Imagine you have a collection of objects including a sword, one day you can't see the sword and you don't know where it's gone, then you can say "The sword is missing", meaning it's absent. Now imagine you had a sword and you gave it to someone, or you got rid of it, the point being you know where it's gone and you don't have it. You see a snake in your ...


15

Cambridge may have oversimplified the matter somewhat. The difference is in the suffixes, which both operated upon the root word obsess. obsess To excessively preoccupy the thoughts or feelings of; to haunt the mind persistently. 1 -ive An adjective suffix signifying relating or belonging to of the nature of tending to; as, affirmative, ...


14

Well, to start with, flaw is not really a verb; it's a noun, and nouns don't have past participles. Like practically any noun, however, it can be "Verbed" (as Calvin calls it; linguists call it Zero-Derivation, or Conversion), resulting in a causative verb to flaw, meaning 'cause to have a flaw'. It's not very common, though -- I mean, how likely do these ...


14

I believe this is called a substantive participle, most probably resulting from an omission of the qualified, thus the usual addition of the. For instance you could add “one(s)” to every one of your sentences: We fear the damned ones. He honored our fallen ones. This is a given one. (this one doesn't sound that good) You are the chosen one. The ...


14

I believe the expressions should be "as evidenced by" and "as is evident from," respectively. My preference, however, would be to opt for neither expression. Instead, I normally use "as demonstrated by." It's identical in meaning to the phrase you're trying to use, and there is little chance of either confusion or misuse, as is possible with the other ...


14

Your teacher made a mistake. "She had to took over" is incorrect grammar.


14

For hyperlinks, the right word would be visited. However, if you have a catalog of music/video/products, you could have a "Previously viewed" (last viewed, last visited, previously visited) section like amazon.com does.


14

Splitted appears to be a nonstandard/obsolete usage of the past tense of split: Collins Dictionary notes that: (Language note) The form split is used in the present tense and is the past tense and past participle of the verb. and Merrian-Webster notes that splitted is: archaic past tense of SPLIT Google Books shows very few usage instances of ...


13

The rules are much more complicated, and I don't think it's a good idea to post them all here. Re: doubling of the final consonant in an unstressed syllable. Pam Peters (in "The Cambridge Guide to English Usage") argues that when the final syllable is identical with a monosyllabic word, the final consonant is also doubled in British English: eavesdropped, ...


13

Once upon a time, there were six regular classes of "strong" Germanic verb that formed their four principal parts by a — mostly predictable — vowel change in the stem. This at least partially survives today: drink, drank, drunk; forbid, forbade, forbidden In contrast, "weak" verbs had to be propped up by a final dental stop: snow, snowed, snowed; ...


12

The OED records both as alternatives for the past tense and the past participle.


12

Anything can be anything in English; see here. In computational linguistics, they use more finely grained part-of-speech tags than the seven parts of speech schoolchildren are often taught. For example, the NUPOS tagset uses the tag n-vvn to indicate “past participle as noun”. It gives an example of “the departed”. So all your examples would be of the ...


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