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Thanks for Mari-Lou A's additional information on the original text. "There are so many things in the world that I love. Dozing in the sun at the beach after swimming, limbs exhausted, salt drying stiff in my hair. Cutting up vegetables into neat, symmetrical pieces. ... Flying into a city at night and seeing the lit gauze of its streets from the air. ... ...


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All of the examples quoted are phrases. They are not complete sentences. It would be better if examples in complete sentences are provided to distinguish the differences. In short, according to my understanding, a gerund functions more like a noun (e.g. as subject, object, etc.). For example, I love cycling on a balmy night when the streets are quiet. A ...


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Your examples are reduced relative clause constructions. "the table painted red" is from "the table which is/was painted red" by deleting the "which is" part. The deletion transformation has been called "WHIZ". In turn, for this example, the "is/was" is part of a passive construction, the active form for which would be "someone paints/painted the table red"...


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Try putting the description before the subject. "The painted red table was there", "taken off in haste clothes were lying on the floor". The point of the sentence is not description, it's something else or just the subject. And the participle is just additional information we happen to put after it. I don't really know the words that could explain it in ...


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You have there examples of a participle phrase or present-participle phrase. This type of participle phrase typically acts as an adjective, modifying the subject of the main clause it is attached to (this is even clearer if you put the participle phrase first in the sentence, which puts it next to the subject without altering the meaning). source: grammar....


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In your comment you provide extra context to the sentence heading your question, namely: Soon the hen was surrounded by animals who wanted to see the strange chick. I interpret the word soon here as indicating the state of the hen on completion of the action of surrounding by the other animals. And a state past particple is adjectival, not verbal. ...


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As AmE speaker points out in a comment, the problem of ambiguity has more to do with the equivocal positioning of modifying phrase with respect to the thing to be modified than with punctuation choices. In the first version of your first example— I met him sitting on the chair and talked to him. —I agree with you that the no-comma version implies that "...


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Purely between the two exact sentences presented as options, only one of them is grammatical: ✔ Megan fell off her bike, hurting her leg. ✘ Megan fell off her bike, hurt her leg. However, more analysis is possible. Much of how this is constructed, and what what sounds normal, depends on how you are interpreting hurt. Is it being used as a verb or an ...


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I can see why this is confusing. The relevant distinction between the participles is whether they are active or passive, and you think that since Megan has been hurt (passive), the passive participle hurt is more appropriate here. The problem is the object "her leg". A passive particple cannot take an object. You could say "Megan fell of her bike, hurt", ...


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