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4

Not very. There is an idealized normalized spelling used in learners' materials and reference resources like dictionaries, and nowhere else. Heck, people can't even agree on which normalized spelling to use: some prefer the conservative Early West Saxon forms (like hīeran), since they better illustrate the history of the word, while others prefer Late West ...


3

Bryan Garner, Garner's Modern American Usage, third edition (2009) includes a lengthy discussion of what Garner calls "phrasal adjectives." The following portions seem relevant to the question posted here: PHRASAL ADJECTIVES. A. General Rule. When a phrase functions as an adjective preceding the noun it modifies—an increasingly frequent phenomenon ...


2

A hyphen is neither obligatory, nor optional, because the question is based on the wrong assumptions. A hyphen, in this case, would be a prime example of overuse, and it would clarify nothing. So let us be clear, as stated: there are two meanings for the word "just". One meaning is derived from, and related to, "justice". The other is a ...


4

The hyphen is most certainly optional unless you are following a specific style-guide that dictates otherwise. If, as a reference, we accept VPs consisting of just and past participles other than mentioned acting as pre-head modifier in an NP, there are plenty of examples of non-hyphenated instances in well edited publications. For example, the just ...


2

An examination of early instances of the plural of zero in English suggests that the more common spelling has long been zeros, which also seems to have appeared in English writing somewhat earlier than zeroes. Here is an Ngram chart for zeros (blue line) versus zeroes (red line) for the period 1760–1880: I started at 1760 to avoid a number of results from ...


4

Grammatically, your sentence is acceptable. You will be using "just mentioned" as an adjectival phrase modifying "record types." The longer alternatives you proposed work, too, but this is a fine construction. As a matter of punctuation (as opposed to grammar), the Chicago Manual of Style would hyphenate the phrase, following the general ...


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Reduced relative adjective clause: Reduction: the record type [that was] just mentioned. Example of a university writing center explaining this: Reduced Adjective Clauses We reduce sentences when you have the same subject in the main clause and the adjective clause. Adjective clauses contain relative pronouns like who, which, or that. The reduced adjective ...


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