17

Or is not the "or" of Modern English, but Or = ere = before. OED: ere, adv.1, prep., conj., and adj. B. prep. 1. a. Before (in time). Forms: β. Middle English–1600s (1800s archaic) or, Middle English ore. d. with the addition of ever. β. 1608 W. Shakespeare King Lear vii. 445 This heart shall breake, in a 100. thousand flowes Or ere ile weepe. ...


6

Grimm's law is at work here. Grimm's law consists of three parts which form consecutive phases in the sense of a chain shift. The phases are usually constructed as follows: Proto-Indo-European voiceless stops change into voiceless fricatives. Proto-Indo-European voiced stops become voiceless stops. Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced ...


4

Not very. There is an idealized normalized spelling used in learners' materials and reference resources like dictionaries, and nowhere else. Heck, people can't even agree on which normalized spelling to use: some prefer the conservative Early West Saxon forms (like hīeran), since they better illustrate the history of the word, while others prefer Late West ...


4

In general, there wasn't a /t͡ʃ/ to /k/ sound change. It's more likely in cases like this that /k/ represents a form where for some reason, the conditioned /k/ to /t͡ʃ/ sound change that is part of the history of English did not take place. In native English words, /t͡ʃ/ almost always comes from palatalization of Proto-Germanic *k. (The verb fetch is a rare ...


4

Palatalisation is the technical term for what caused the change from /k/ to /t͡ʃ/. You might have noticed that the vowel in the word keep (/i/) is produced further forward in the mouth than the vowel in cool (/u/). The KEEP vowel is therefore called a ‘front vowel’ and the COOL vowel is called a ‘back vowel’. The /k/ in cool is articulated in the back of the ...


3

Michael Quinion, Ologies and Isms: Word Beginnings and Endings (2002) offers a useful summary of the origin and application of this type of a- prefix: a- Towards, of, in, into, or at; marking some ongoing process or state; movement onwards or away. {Old English prepositions of or on (sometimes as unstressed an), or the Old English prefix a-.} The Old ...


2

Long and short vowels were written the same way in Old English (macrons, the lines marking long vowels, are a modern convention). Given the current pronunciation of Christ, I’d guess it had a long and not a short vowel in Old English. But I’m not sure. If it did have a long vowel, the reason might be because Latin Chrīstus apparently had a long vowel. The ...


2

Old English unstressed a regularly turned into Middle English e The change of -an to -en is because of vowel reduction. This was a regular sound change between Old English and Middle English that turned many Old English unstressed vowels into Middle English "e". The pronunciation of Middle English unstressed "e" is often reconstructed as [...


2

It's "English" rather than "Anglish" because the vowel was subject to palatal umlaut. Umlaut is a process that occurred in many Germanic languages, Old English among them, and that caused vowels to change when they were followed by an [i] or [j]. The word English is from an Old English adjective Englisc derived from an Old English noun ...


2

The word "metal" has been in the English language at least since the time of Chaucer, meaning that almost every English purist would probably include it in their "Anglish". This glossary of Chaucer includes the word "metal" and gives the meaning as "metal". The Chaucerian verb meaning to craft metal is "forge"...


2

According to the following source, the h was lost because of its unemphasized position: The h- was lost due to being in an unemphasized position, as in modern speech the h- in "give it to him," "ask her," is heard only "in the careful speech of the partially educated" [Weekley, Ernest, An Etymological Dictionary of Modern ...


1

In a comment, KarlG wrote: Weak verbs are propped up by a dental suffix; strong verbs have a vowel change. Just as in Present Day English, though they're mostly called irregular today.


1

It looks like hegh-stald meaning virgin. It’s also spelled hægsteald, with the etymology reported by Revealing Words as: the sense slips from Germanic roots of hag as enclosure or fence + steald as settlement or dwelling, to suppositions about a dependant young warrior or household retainer, hence unmarried and without his own household, to novice (tiro) ...


1

The question supposes following agreement in four sources that the univerbated phrasal verb started out as compound of some kind (not adequately specified) in some predecesor of modern English (left open, OE ante quem) whence it derived a noun, "wilcuma", in evidence from Old English, and an opaque, ambivalent word in modern English welcome, This ...


1

I'm glad for you curiosity, but your title could use some more context. The book that is quoted would have done better to say that the word 'above' is etymologically equivalent to 'on + (by + up)'. I find the way he has it too suggestive, if not downright misleading (and likely leading the the poster's inquiry) (the quote being "So in a sense, above ...


1

At least one highly regarded authoritative source, CGEL, would say that etymology is not a reliable guide to whether a word should be considered a compound one or not. Here is the relevant segment (p. 1627); the relevant paragraph is the second one, but I include the first one for context. Morphological analysability vs etymology Words are most clearly ...


1

the term "blue moon" for "intercalary month" arose by folk etymology, the "blue" replacing the no-longer-understood belewe, 'to betray'. I shouldn't consider myself a scholarly source of course, but it is so glaringly obvious so that it might go as common sense knowledge. If eleven, twelve contained as is usually thought an ...


1

I have read that until the time of grammarian guru, Quintilian ( 1st century AD.) "c" and "k" were both used in Latin. However, Quintilian put it about that "k" was not to be used, only "c". Therefore, the Romance languages, descended from Latin, hardly ever use 'k". High German was not really developed until ...


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