54

Leave back or hold back means to make a child repeat a grade in school because of lack of academic progress, or very rarely, because of slow social and emotional development (usually in kindergarten or pre-school). Here's a transcript of an NPR show that uses the terms several times. https://www.npr.org/2012/05/14/152683322/third-grade-a-pivotal-time-in-...


53

sense verbs or sensory verbs are generally intransitive: They are: look, seem, taste, feel, smell, and sound. They all can be followed by adjectives. You look good. He sounds terrible. That tastes scrumptious. [all adjectives] the verb go is an action or active verb. Therefore, it needs an adverb: This wine goes well with that cheese. That color goes ...


44

When the English settlers landed in the New World, they didn't have a word for maize. Maize is a New World crop which was unknown in Europe. The word "maize" was originally Spanish, and comes from the word "mahiz" in the Arawak language of Haiti, and in the early 1600s it was not yet a common word in England. The settlers called it "Indian corn", which soon ...


44

A look at early (pre-1800) English dictionaries points to a possible source of confusion early in the career of biscuit. Two dictionaries—Edward Phillips & John Kersey, The New World of Words: Or, Universal English Dictionary (1706) and John Kersey, Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum: or, a General English Dictionary (1708)—have identical definitions for ...


38

Michael Quinion, Ologies and Isms: Word Beginnings and endings (2002) has this entry for the suffix -eroo: -eroo Also -aroo, -aroonie, and -eroonie. An informal and often humorous intensifier of nouns {A fanciful formation of uncertain origin} This ending is most common in North America, Australia, and New Zealand. It appeared in the U.S. in the ...


26

My initial response to this question was . . . "Ewwww. That's just incorrect. It should be well, not good." Then, upon further reflection, I took your premise into account. Is the word go being used as a sensory verb here. I do not believe it is. Rather I think this is merely informal usage of the word good, not the transmogrification of the word go ...


25

The suffix -eroo appears to be an analoguous post-formation derived, in the view of many, from the Spanish vaquero - a cowboy. Julian Mason (in American Speech, Feb. 1960, pp. 51-55 - available through Duke University Press, albeit behind the pay-wall of JSTOR) cites a novel by one Owen Wister, Jimmyjohn Boss (1900): "Yep. Cow-punchers. Vaqueros. ...


25

'Software' is non-countable (like 'milk'). As a native American English-speaker who grew up with software (and a vested interest in it) and is nearing age 40, it seems like people who are quite computer literate and have been since before the age of smartphones will never say 'a software' or 'softwares' unless they're joking, or mis-educated, but native ...


24

An interesting anecdote appears in Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography. Then I walked up the street, gazing about till near the market-house I met a boy with bread. I had made many a meal on bread, and, inquiring where he got it, I went immediately to the baker's he directed me to, in Second-street, and ask'd for bisket, intending such as we had in Boston; ...


19

pushcart A type of cart with wheels that you manually push. Dictionary.com says the term is primarily used in the US and in Canada mainly US and Canadian a handcart, typically having two wheels and a canvas roof, used esp by street vendors. Also called: barrow Wikipedia suggests that it is typically known as a food cart A food cart is a mobile kitchen ...


17

In the succinctly named textbook: English Grammar in Familiar lectures. Embracing a new Systematick Order of Parsing. A New System of Punctuation, Exercises in false Syntax, and A System of Philosophical Grammar. Designed for the use of Schools and Private Learners by Samuel Kirkham, dated 1834 we have this example of usage pertaining to Pennsylvania The ...


14

Usage has changed significantly over the past few decades... ...as you can see, make sure to [verb] has already overtaken the (dated, imho) be sure to [verb] and doubtless soon make sure [noun] [verb] will overtake be sure [noun] [verb] (I've no doubt it did so long ago in speech; written forms tend to lag, and they're often just quoting earlier usages). I ...


14

Consound it, concern it and consarn it are all minced oaths for confound it, which is itself a minced oath for damn it, in turn arguably a minced oath for God damn it.


13

I grew up in New York (born in Nov 1968) and when I was a child they were called "thongs". In the very late 70s my family moved to Seattle and there they were also called "Thongs". I only became aware of the term "flip-flops" in the late 80s and found it humorous that a g-string would be called a "thong". (I can still recall my adolescent thoughts ...


13

The phrase market cart brings up some similar images in eBay. I think I’ve also seen this kind of stand called a "barrow", too. Collins list the following for "barrow": chiefly Brit a handcart, typically having two wheels and a canvas roof, used esp by street vendors Which neatly describes your images in a British fashion and gives "handcart" as an ...


12

This answer acknowledges the circa 1931-1949++ era 'Show Biz' uses of -eroo/-aroo (see the answer by Sven Yargs); but it demonstrates that many -eroo/-aroo endings are based on the English word kangaroo and that these predate this era, and that either kangaroo or buckaroo could have informed if not provided the -eroo in switcheroo and similar words. This ...


11

Corn as a synonym for maize or any other grain depends on the region you look at. I once heard as explanation for this, that people tend to name the most common crop corn. So in regions with a dominant maize production corn refers to maize. In regions with a dominant grain production corn typically means grain. In my region, when people speak of corn, they ...


11

AmE here. "Would you mind and do something" is unacceptable in any region of the US in which I have ever lived (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, South, Mid-west and Northwest.) It is not idiomatic, and at best is a terrible example of attempt at simulating non-native speech. Googling "would you mind and do" turns up no examples of this phrasing except your own ...


11

The earliest occurrence in print of hackamore I have found, in this cowboy story from 1850 (very likely the source alluded to by Wikipedia and Etymonline), explicitly associates it with the Spanish term. ('Pete' is 'Dutch' or German, the 'old man' is apparently Mexican.) “When a broncho is lassed, he is fust choked down, then a hackamore is put on ...


11

Americans don't all use "carmel". Many of them think it's more correct to say "carr-a-mel", so you can find a number of examples of this pronunciation being used, especially in formal contexts. Go through some of the Youglish US pronunciations of "caramel". There is a word where a similar syncopated pronunciation is, as far as I ...


11

Mitford Mathews, A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles (1951), offers this entry for the word snapper: snapper, n. 1. = snapping turtle. [Citations from 1796 forward omitted.] ... 2. A cracker at the end of a whip. Usu. transf. in the sense of a word or phrase giving a smart or pointed finish to something. [First three cited examples:] 1835 ...


11

As Steinback noted in an interview, he was a bindle-stiff himself in real life. An old term used to refer migrant workers: I was a bindle-stiff myself for quite a spell,” the author told The New York Times in 1937, employing the now archaic nickname for migrant workers. “I worked in the same country that the story is laid in.” With Of Mice and Men, ...


11

Changing vowels to schwas is called vowel reduction, and it's incredibly common for most English speakers (not just people from Michigan).


11

The sentence as written is simply incorrect. The object of "help me" should be an infinitive. As you stated, "has helped me [to] develop" would be one way of correcting the sentence. This is the same regardless of what tense the first verb is in. "helped me develop," "will help me develop," "would have been helping me develop," etc. are all correct phrases. ...


10

"More X than you can shake a stick at" means more than you can count. I don't know the origin but a as a wild speculation picture someone using a walking stick or cane to count something. If there's lots to count, the stick will be shaking a lot for each item. If there's too much, the shaking stick won't be able to keep up. The OED says it's a figurative ...


10

The earliest use of jam-packed I have been able to find occurs in a review of a children’s program — the finale was an “emblematic representation of the majesty of Britannia” — in late 19th c. Cardiff: I turned in last night at the Park-hall the place was jam-packed — a word specially coined for a special occasion, and the heat was suffocating. — “...


8

Dictionary discussions of 'go figure' John Ayto, Oxford Dictionary of English Idioms, third edition (2009) identifies the phrase go figure as "North American informal": go figure! work it out for yourself (used to suggest that the conclusion to be drawn about something is obvious). North American informal Both Leo Rosten, The Joys of Yinglish (...


8

Corn is a generic term for grain. From OED –  corn, n.1 Etymology: Common Germanic: Old English corn corresponds to Old Frisian korn (East Frisian kôrn, kôren) I. gen. A grain, a seed. Whereas maize is a particular type of grain. From OED – maize, n. (and adj.) Etymology: < Spanish †mahiz (now maíz ; first attested 1500 in Columbus's diary, although ...


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