24

One American dialect where you can say Mary book rather than Mary's book, is African American Vernacular English, spoken mainly in the African American community. See this article. An excerpt: Possession in AAVE is also different. It can be shown by proximity where the owner’s name comes before the object owned. For instance, “She over Mary house” (...


21

This is usually just called the "plural marker" or the "plural morpheme". In English it's usually "-s" though there are plenty of exceptions, and other languages of course have their own plural markers.


17

The omission of the possessive suffix is very common in many Caribbean dialects. Here's a short excerpt from an article on Trinidadian folk speech that happens to include your "Mary book" example: With regard to expressing the possessive concept, inflectional suffixation is completely lost in the folk speech. Standard English marks possession in nouns ...


15

I suppose it depends on how you define the two terms "foreign words" and "English morphemes." I would not call the English word "companion" a foreign word; to me that is just its etymological origin. I think morphemes are generally considered a little more abstract and general than what you have in mind. In particular, I don't ...


14

Pluralizer https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/pluralizer Grammar. A suffix, prefix, inflection, or auxiliary word which forms a plural. Your original suggestion to your friend is totally sufficient, as it turns out. It does feel slightly made up!


9

You may not be asking the question you think you are. Pluralizers always make something plural, and the examples you give -- apples, ponies -- do indeed make the words plural. But consider he goes/they go; the -es marks singular, but what marks go as plural? There are different morphemes (the smallest chunks of sound-meaning correspondence, like un-, lock, ...


6

It may be possible to know why Latin was chosen over Greek (or vice versa) in particular cases. Let's take hydraulic over "aqualic." The etymology of "hydraulic" is actually ὕδωρ (water) + αὐλός (pipe). The reason that we don't have the parallel word from Latin, "aquatubic," is that the Romans, who admired things Greek, including Greek engineering, had ...


6

ly is a morpheme that can be appended to most nouns to mean "like", so saintly means "like a saint". This turns the noun into an adjective. ness is another morpheme that can be appended to an adjective, to create a noun describing that abstract property, e.g. "dark" => "darkness". When the adjective ends with y, it's usually changed to i, e.g. happiness (in ...


3

This is called a zero possessive and it is fairly strongly argued by some linguists that it is not (as others have it) "lazy", merely dialectal, or indeed even incorrect. Rather, it is the correct grammar of creoles such as Trinidadian Creole; and a form, moreover, that is considered the origin of the same construct in AAVE and what has been termed Black ...


2

The suffix you are looking for is actually -ate: word-forming element used in forming nouns from Latin words ending in -atus, -atum (such as estate, primate, senate). Those that came to English via Old and Middle French often arrived with -at, but an -e was added after c. 1400 to indicate the long vowel. The suffix also can mark adjectives formed from Latin ...


2

Factoid is rare word in that it's a relatively popular recent coinage, but unlike most slang, can be traced to a single, possibly uncontested point of origin: The earliest record of factoid comes in 1973, in Marilyn, a book that was a combination of photographs of Marilyn Monroe and biographical text provided by [Norman] Mailer. Shortly after using the word ...


2

-OID Meaning: "like, like that of, thing like a ______," from Latinized form of Greek -oeidēs (three syllables), from… See definitions of -oid. from https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid Find out more at etymonline.com


2

From an etymological perspective, this is not suppletion. The word "bought" is an irregular weak verb: I wrote an post summarizing the history of past-tense forms ending in -ught as an answer to this question here: Origin of irregular ending "-ught" for past simple and participle. The presence of the dental suffix in the past tense caused the root ...


2

Analysis of "morphemes" is pretty complicated, so it may not be possible to get a definite answer that applies to all frameworks. But based on my understanding, I would say that best is not monomorphemic. Here are two arguments I can think of: Syntactically (or from an "inflectional paradigm" point of view), best clearly acts as the superlative inflected ...


2

Some reasons can include: Community of origin. In particular we tend to have Latin a bit more often than Greek because over the last few centuries Latin has been better known. Personal preference of coiner generally. Perceived euphony in a particular case. Matching related words; both heptagram and septagram can be found, but heptagram is more common among ...


2

The headmaster of the Maple Hayes school for dyslexic students is currently compiling a morpheme dictionary. https://maplehayeshallschool.squarespace.com/about/


2

Liver, tiger and river are one morpheme each. As per comments: Liver, tiger, and river are all one morpheme each, inseparable morphologically. And not all root morphemes occur as free morphemes; many are "cranberry morphs" that only occur in compounds or with other morphology, like the cran part of cranberry. - John Lawler


2

The following extract is from Language Through the Looking Glass: Exploring Language and Linguistics_Marina Yaguello, Trevor A. Le V. Harris; the conclusions summarised (from an acceptance of the views of the authors) are mine. … An analysis which is valid from a historical or etymological point of view may be worthless from the synchronic point of view: ...


1

Science, medicine, chemistry, biology, philosophy, mathematics, psychology and so on need a lot of scientific terms, so it is no wonder that Latin and Greek elements of word formation are used. There can't be a system in the creation of the terms in the various disciplines and often they are the creation of one individual scientist going by his personal ...


1

Grammar.about.com has several examples of root morphemes in compounds like this: beauty+-ful giving beautiful; happy+ness giving happiness. The spelling apparently is the spelling of the root word itself, not the word as it is after spelling changes used when attaching an affix.


1

I could look up "poster art" on the web, find some posters for sale, and order one for myself. But then the thing that I bought, the "poster", would never have been on a post and would not have been intended ever to go on a post, or to be posted anywhere. If it has no connection with any post, how can we say that "post" is a meaningful part of its form? ...


1

A brief visit to the OED finds that the "-er" suffix attached to a verb may come from the Latin suffix -arius (masculine) or -arium (neuter). If the former, the word refers to a person associated with the action of the verb, which gives rise to the notion of agency; if the latter, it's a thing so associated. So we can attach -er to a verb to refer to a ...


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