68

The trail of dees goes back to the mid-1800s, as follows. First, OED Online defines "puredee, adj. (and adv.)" (with forms pure-D, pure-d, pure dee, puredee, pure-dee, puredy, pure-T, all from the 1900s) as U.S. regional (chiefly south and south Midland). Thoroughgoing, out-and-out, complete, real. Also as adv.: very, totally, completely. ["...


49

It's true that OED's first definition for so-called is just called or designated by that name, but the most recent citation for that "neutral" sense is 1863. So even though OED don't explicitly identify it as dated/out-of-fashion, that's what I would say. The "current" definition is... Called or designated by this name or term, but not properly entitled ...


21

Short answer: neither. The word you want is nonexistent. Longer answer: You can actually add a "non" prefix to any word to make up something new, even if it's not in the dictionary. (If you do so, common style says to use a hyphen.) After having eaten an endless supply of apples, she was pleased to finally be handed a "non-apple". You ...


17

Bryan Garner, Garner's Modern American Usage (2003) has a useful discussion of this problem in his lengthy coverage of phrasal adjectives: E. The Compound Conundrum. When the first or last element in a phrasal adjective is part of a compound noun, it too needs to be hyphenated: post-cold-war norms, not post-cold war norms. Otherwise, as in that example, ...


15

Sometimes it is negative, sometimes not. Generally if it precedes a term that is familiar and not a proper noun, it is being used to undermine that term. e.g. Band X have just released their so-called "Greatest Hits" album. The implication is that the songs on the album are only called "Greatest Hits", but aren't actually great or hits. Alternatively, ...


15

It has an opposing connotation. If someone is bothering to include "so-called" in a phrase, then they are seeing some reason to distance their own claim from that they mention. There's a few different reasons why one might do so, and if the claim is a positive one, then questioning it is negative. Conversely, if the claim is a negative one, then the ...


12

In general usage, "so called" is used to indicate that the following words are not the writer's own, but come from another source. When the following words are not in common parlance, it could be considered neutral. It is especially useful when the introduced phrase has a literal meaning may be confusing. I have seen it used in popular publications when ...


10

No, the comma is correct. Bound... is a participial phrase modifying the subject, the peasants, so it is not a clause; normally, only full clauses are set off by a colon, semicolon, or full stop. As to why you need the comma, a participial phrase that is removed from the subject (or from whatever it modifies) is normally appositional, i.e. a kind of ...


10

No, there is no ambiguity. The author found herself among the people on whom pranks/jokes were played. If she had found herself among the 'cool kids', the phrase would immediately follow the mention of them. In fact it follows 'unsuspecting nerds'.


10

It can be either and that depends on what the person wants to say. If they want to say that they smashed someone's head into a wall because they were angry, then the first sentence is the right one. if instead they simply want to say that they were angry while smashing someone's head into a wall, then the second sentence is what has to be used.


9

You've hit on a problem with gerunds: they can be ambiguous at times, and lead to syntactic ambiguity. From Wikipedia: Flying planes can be dangerous. Either the act of flying planes is dangerous, or planes that are flying are dangerous. Sometimes this ambiguity can lead you into a full-blown garden-path sentence, which forces the reader to reparse a ...


8

Harold Wentworth, American Dialect Dictionary (1944) notes two early instances of "pure D" (and one in which "pure bee" may serve as an intensifier)—all from 1941—in its entry for pure, though it doesn't offer any insight into the question of what the D stands for: pure. ... 2. adj. Good, perfect; veritable, downright, 'regular.' [...


8

Form versus Function This is a perennial confusion, one deriving in part from different sources using the word “gerund” in conflicting and contradictory ways, some of which are based in older analyses that no longer hold, others which are simply too fuzzy for practical application. You seem to be using “gerund” to mean any old ‑ing word at all, no matter ...


7

Yes (but you do have to know what you are meaning!) Some examples ... 'Twas Christmas broach'd the mightiest ale; 'Twas Christmas told the merriest tale; A Christmas gambol oft could cheer The poor man's heart through half the year. ~Walter Scott I wish we could put up some of the Christmas spirit in jars and open a jar of it every month. ~Harlan Miller ...


7

A very quick google led me to this post on WordWizard by user Ken Greenwald ...The evidence, however, looks pretty strong to me for the probable origin provided by the Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE): PUREDEE adjective, adverb. Also PURE-D, PURE DEE OLD, PURE O.D., PURE OLDEE, PURE-T [[all forms in lower case]] [Probably originally ...


6

If used on something generally considered positive and desirable, the phrase "so-called" evokes a rhetoric of falsity or fraud in the thing being referred to, which is a negative connotation as you said. You Americans and your so-called freedom fighters have been doing nothing but invading other countries to maintain your power for over half a century. ...


6

Although both are possibly interchangeable: Sale Price is usually used when the item has a lower price than normal due to a sale. The discounted price of an item from the regular selling price. While sales price is an "alternative term for price" according to Business Dictionary.


6

In the examples of the OP, enough is a determiner for the ellipted noun people: Enough [people] are present to form a quorum. The determiner is negated by the adverb not: Not enough [people] are present to form a quorum. The understanding of what an adverb is, and what it can modify, has broadened over time: An adverb is a word that modifies a ...


6

Short answer (Assuming that Modifiers and Complements exist ...) It's a Complement. Here's some evidence, which will be explained in more detail in the longer answer. Firstly, the noun manager inherently implies that there is something being managed. This expectation is fulfilled by the noun football. This shows the tight semantic relationship we expect ...


6

To supplement the excellent answer from tchrist, I'll answer your question: For example, is it OK to say "With my persistent broadening the horizon of my knowledge of cosmology, my interest in it is ever growing."? No, it is not okay. "broadening" is apparently a noun here, since it is modified by the adjective "persistent" (as you recognize). But "the ...


6

The appositive meaning of "Angry" and "he" is clear and unambiguous so there is no reason to avoid the construction. Cambridge dictionary quotes an identical construct, albeit with a participial adjective "undaunted": "Undaunted, we started to think about the problem." You may also like the example of "Silent ...


5

Both same day and on site modify the noun service calls. Furthermore, same day is a remote reference for service calls, unlike on site, which is immediately before it. All the more reason for same day to be hyphenated. We offer same-day, on-site service calls.


5

Yes. Because of the doubt that it casts on the phrase that it modifies, it comes across either as snarky/sarcastic or elitist.


5

If the item that follows 'so-called' is an established and widely known term for something (even if you don't exactly know what that term means (e.g., the so-called quantum theory of physics)), or if the item or phraseology is entirely unknown but the idea is immediately obvious (one can imagine hearing about 'Janet Jackson's so-called wardrobe malfunction' ...


5

The first one is best, because John is a name and terrified is an adjective describing John. If you don't add a comma, then you're naming him Terrified John. If you need a grammatical explanation (the rule), then I'll let the other people explain.


5

Whether an adjective applied to the first term of a parallel set of nouns also implicitly applies to the second is as much a matter of common sense as anything else. It certainly isn't automatic, which is why, for example, the sentence I hate hard candy and helium. is unlikely to leave many readers or listeners puzzling over what "hard helium" might be. ...


5

The phrase "I wish for a rest now" could be interpreted to mean that at the present time (ie, "now") you are wishing for a rest (presumably beginning immediately, if not sooner), or it could be interpreted to mean that you have a wish that at the present time ("now") you were resting. The difference in the two meanings is certainly subtle, and, some would ...


5

Christmas colors are red and green, I believe, throughout the West, with white, silver, or gold often accompanying them, and in modern times other colors as well. Christmas-colored would be understood as such, hence you can find Christmas-colored flames, and so on. But I wouldn't recommend it in general. Most things described as X-colored are tinted in a ...


5

Here is an extract from another post of mine, slightly modified: 1.0 Complements versus Modifiers 1.1 Complements OK, so let´s have a look at what Modifiers and Complements actually are. Well, roughly speaking, a Complement is a phrase which fills a special slot set up by another word or phrase in the sentence. So for example, the verb TEACH sets up a ...


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