According to Nick Marten's The Secret History of Typography in the Oxford English Dictionary, a colon followed by a dash is a typographical mark that the OED refers to as the dog's bollocks:
Citing usage from 1949, the OED calls this mark the dog’s bollocks, which it defines as, “typogr. a colon followed by a dash, regarded as forming a shape resembling ...
I found a site quoting the Chicago Manual of Style. I don't have the style manual handy, but this advice mirrors what I know from my personal experience.
"A vertical list is best introduced by a complete grammatical sentence, followed by a colon. Items carry no closing punctuation unless they consist of complete sentences. If the items are numbered, a ...
As others have said, it's a matter of stylistic choice. The semicolon style is very formal.
Personally, if I was using the semicolon style, I'd go all the way and put an italicised "and" after the penultimate item and a period after the last item, like this:
The items on today's agenda are:
item 2; and
The idea behind ...
You should use "inspire".
Don't be distracted by the fact that there's only one leader. The inspiration is being done by that leader's many fine qualities, which are obviously plural.
I assume you wouldn't have doubts about Two great leaders whose vision inspires all (if you do, try it again as Two great leaders whose shared vision inspires all).
English documents written in India often use :-. For example:
Tatkal tickets shall be issued only on production of one of the ten prescribed proofs of identity shown under (as mentioned in Commercial Circular No.68 of 2012 issued vide letter No.2011/TG-I/20/P/ID dated 01.11.2012) as per procedure explained below:-
The details of medical camps conducted by ...
Yes, you're right that the correlative conjunction either ... or ... is simply a summation of successive or's -- either ... or ... or ... or ..., with only the last or obligatory. Same thing without either, except that then it's not clear that this is disjunction with or, instead of conjunction with and (which is more common, and unmarked). But if you start ...
These, I believe are called "discourse markers". I can't find a list, but I can think of a list:
By the way,
As a matter of fact
These days it's a matter of style. In my news room, if the list comprises items that are sentence fragments, each item requires a semicolon except the last one, which is terminated with a full stop. If the items are full sentences, each is treated as such - leading capital and trailing full stop.
This is a little old-style, and some style guides do away ...
You are correct that it's appropriate to visually distinguish when you're mentioning a word as a word instead of using it for its meaning. This is called the use-mention distinction.
Quotation marks or italics are appropriate for making the distinction. If you're using a style guide, look for “use-mention distinction” or “words as words” to see what it ...
Former means “the first of two” and latter means “the second of two.” Notice that you should use these terms when speaking of only two previously mentioned items. If the options include three or more, former and latter do not apply.
Angela has three brothers: Mark, Adam, and Ryan.
That's the one to go with.
N.B. This is called the syntactical-descriptive function of the colon: it "introduces a description—in particular, makes explicit the elements of a set" (Wikipedia)
Apply Equation 1, use Lemma 2, and exploit Theorem 3, to prove the finiteness of the result.
In this case the whole list seems to "prove the finiteness of the result".
Apply Equation 1, use Lemma 2, and exploit Theorem 3 to prove the finiteness of the result.
In this case I'd say that it is ambiguous, but can you expect your reader to understand how ...
The article is usually placed at the end of the title, following a comma, since this makes alphabetic scanning easier.*
AmelieBatmanBourne Identity, TheOf Mice and Men (Prepositions retain their original position.)Serious Man, A
*The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (18.51, 18.53)
The enacting formula of UK Acts of Parliaments (e.g. here's a recent example) ends with a colon followed by what appears to be an em-dash.
Looking around this page, colon + hyphen appears to be common to a number of Commonwealth and British territories, though there are exceptions to that rule (e.g. Phillipines).
Usage in legislation would seem to indicate ...
In constructions like this you generally use the singular, although there are exceptions. Some of these exceptions may be attempts to avoid ambiguity (for example, a sundry store might be a store that is sundry, rather than a store that sells sundries; a sundries store is unambiguous). Other exceptions seem not to have a reason.
This is a perfect question ...
However, I remember reading somewhere that in US English, when there is a list of items, the last item is NOT preceded by "and" unlike in British English.
This isn't true. Both American English and British English use and before the last item in a list. You may be thinking of whether or not to use a comma before that and, which does vary, although not by ...
You end up with something like
The park has: some bears; many deer, like roe deer which are quite friendly, like to eat camp food, and watch visitors — also fallow deer which are timid; and other animals, most of which live in the trees.
That would work, but it's awkward and although a dash seems to work, you can really only have one of those and ...
While not always appropriate, bulleted lists naturally take care of the nesting problem. In addition, they help individualize the reading experience by allowing the reader to drill down into interesting areas while skipping others.
The park has:
grizzlies, which number in the tens
Attacks are much rarer than the media would lead ...
Write what sounds natural. I like changing the verbs and joining with commas:
There were many cases of animal suicide in the paper: a duck drowning
itself after the death of its companion, a school of dolphins beaching
itself for no apparent reason, a deer throwing itself from a cliff to
avoid being eaten by hunting dogs. The list went on and on.
From Merriam Webster’s page on enumerate:
1: to ascertain the number of: Count
2: to specify one after another: List
Also from Merriam Webster’s page on enumerate
Despite its numer- root, you don't have to use numbers when enumerating.
Based on the information provided by the dictionary’s page on the word, I can only conclude that ...
Some context dependent words can be found in Tony1's How to improve your writing, section "Eliminating redundancy":
still (as in "While the journal had relatively low circulation numbers for its day, it still influenced popular opinion and was feared by the conservative administration.")
It's correct, because it is a recognised, well-known usage. However, it is redundant, and in most situations not the best or right usage. I would only use it where there is an established convention for its usage, such as in certain court documents.
I agree with Mr. Shiny and New 安宇, but I would add the caveat that even though his reading of the version with comma is formally correct, it does not escape the Fundamental Law that "Anything which can be misunderstood will be".
I would suggest moving the final clause to make your meaning unambiguous. If all three operations are required for the proof, ...
I'd do something like
How are you doing with regard to
sourcing the moose hair,
reticulating the splines,
extolling the virtues of silk underwear, and
estimating the project completion time?
Basically, this just takes an ordinary list, punctuated as an ordinary list would be, and adds list bullets to aid readability. If ...
The statement as you gave it might occur in speech, but forms joined in this manner are not preferred in writing. Instead, separate the items with a comma, and put or only before the last item:
You may use X, Y, Z, or even something else.
This is effectively the same as the rule for lists of items joined by and.
(Oxford comma forever!)
This is a simple list of 3 elements, not a complex list of 2 elements whose second element contains two subelements.
deep red with black with dark green or dark purple
medium shades of red with similar tones of green and orange;
deep red with black with dark green or dark purple
medium shades of red with similar ...