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19

Former means “the first of two” and latter means “the second of two.” Notice that you should use these terms when speaking of only two previously mentioned items. If the options include three or more, former and latter do not apply. Relevant question.


19

Although enumerate has overtones of numeric order because of its etymology, it is not so restricted in its use: enumerate = to name things separately, one by one Cambridge Similarly, Merriam Webster offers a definition that avoids any numeric content: enumerate = to specify one after another : LIST Merriam Webster Because bullet points list items ...


15

English documents written in India often use :-. For example: Tatkal tickets shall be issued only on production of one of the ten prescribed proofs of identity shown under (as mentioned in Commercial Circular No.68 of 2012 issued vide letter No.2011/TG-I/20/P/ID dated 01.11.2012) as per procedure explained below:- The details of medical camps conducted by ...


8

The enacting formula of UK Acts of Parliaments (e.g. here's a recent example) ends with a colon followed by what appears to be an em-dash. Looking around this page, colon + hyphen appears to be common to a number of Commonwealth and British territories, though there are exceptions to that rule (e.g. Phillipines). Usage in legislation would seem to indicate ...


7

Write what sounds natural. I like changing the verbs and joining with commas: There were many cases of animal suicide in the paper: a duck drowning itself after the death of its companion, a school of dolphins beaching itself for no apparent reason, a deer throwing itself from a cliff to avoid being eaten by hunting dogs. The list went on and on.


7

From Merriam Webster’s page on enumerate: 1:  to ascertain the number of: Count 2:  to specify one after another: List Also from Merriam Webster’s page on enumerate Despite its numer- root, you don't have to use numbers when enumerating. Based on the information provided by the dictionary’s page on the word, I can only conclude that ...


7

Yes. You are applying two distinct comma guidelines consistently: The commas around a nonessential element. (Purdue OWL has some examples.) Commas (including the serial comma) separating items in a list of three or more elements. (Number 5 in this list.) There is no standard guideline for what to do if the application of multiple rules leads to a ...


5

Whether an adjective applied to the first term of a parallel set of nouns also implicitly applies to the second is as much a matter of common sense as anything else. It certainly isn't automatic, which is why, for example, the sentence I hate hard candy and helium. is unlikely to leave many readers or listeners puzzling over what "hard helium" might be. ...


5

Rephrase the introduction to the list so you don't need a conjunction. The user can choose from one of the following options:


5

If rephrasing gets awkward, you can bullet a complete sentence showing this item here with an ending semi-colon; this item, which ends in the same semi-colon followed by an "or"; or this item, which completes the sentence with a period. These are guidelines, not steadfast rules that everyone agrees upon.


5

While there is no rule for ordering general lists, we can probably consider specific cases: (A) cases where an ordering may be mandatory (eg listing Royalty or Government Officials or by some sort of seniority) (B) cases where an ordering may be natural (eg ordering temporally or by some measurement like size or age) (C) cases where phrases may have a ...


5

Between each set of commas is one buying option. There is no need for the extra "or" because the reader understands there are 4 options without it: Cadillac Mercedes Hyundai All three Therefore, your first sentence is correct! As for your first question, I cannot think of a word to replace "all three." "All three" definitely makes sense and is an ...


5

The New Oxford American Dictionary... above (adverb) includes Mentioned earlier or further up on the same page. So "All of the above" may be used in horizontal senses as well as vertical.


5

It is acceptable to use semi-colons in a list. However, the semi-colon is a stronger separator than a comma, so your example is effectively making a list which separates the items like this (which doesn't make sense): gene1 kidney disease, gene2 cardiac arrhythmia, gene3 arterial stiffness, gene4 aortic aneurysm It would be better to swap the commas and ...


4

I'm a mathematician, and I'd just like to confirm that, although some of us have a reputation for mangling the English language, I've never encountered the "either ... and ..." mangling before. I'm inclined to assume it's just a typo.


4

I don't read obituaries, so I'm not quite sure of the structure, but I agree that the way you state it implies the spouses are his children as well. My initial feeling is that I don't even think it's necessary to include spouses, but I would rewrite it as: John Doe is survived by his children, Steve Doe, married to June; Will Doe, married to Janet; and ...


4

Coordinated subjects such as "John and Mary" or "Highway 68 and Robinson Canyon Road" are generally considered plural and are followed by a plural verb form: John and Mary are ... and Highway 68 and Robinson Canyon Road need ... . Occasionally the compound is followed by a singular form: My brother and best friend is in trouble. Here the brother is the ...


4

According to Longman's Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, as well as The Elliptical Noun Phrase In English: Structure and Use, these are both examples of a general process of noun phrase ellipsis. Here's one example from the latter source While Kim had lots of books, Pat had very few. with the word 'books' being ellipted from the end of the ...


4

The second sentence is not just a list of phrases. It is a list of clauses. Each of the clauses are independent and could stand alone as a sentence. The weather is warm. Campsites are abundant. And insects are scarce. The series of clauses could be joined to the first sentence with a semicolon, but it is not necessary. Each clause could stand ...


4

"I hate hard candy and olives" can have both those meanings. That's the beauty (and the curse) of the English language. I would say that "I hate olives and hard candy" is definitely less ambiguous, but it's not any more or less concise (after all, it contains exactly the same number of words).


4

3) is unambiguous, but is more wordy than strictly necessary. 2) is not how you would express this idea. You would never separate a single adjective from its referent(s) with a comma. 1) is the most idiomatic way of conveying your intended meaning. Preceding the entire list with 'new' as you have done implicitly attaches the adjective to each of its ...


4

A rule that works very generally is that when the subject of a sentence refers to more than one individual, use the plural form of the verb -- otherwise, use the singular form. So, for your example, where the subject is "a man, a woman, and a dog", if that refers to 3 individuals, the verb should be "were". If you can imagine being in a world with ...


4

The reason for using ‘;’ rather than ‘,’ is to avoid ambiguity if the item/phrase includes a comma. Whether to use small Roman numerals or Arabic numerals is a matter of style, and whether you are using numerals elsewhere in your hierarchy. I think small Romans here are OK as they are somewhat less obtrusive (you are just using the x-height) than Arabic ...


4

Typically, academic papers exclude academic titles in the body of the literature, but their reference in the citation section includes highest degree earned (and possibly a notable position in a professional society). You might consider just listing your folks by their last name in the body such as Watkins, Ling, and Russell. A PhD may also be referred to ...


4

Punctuation is a matter of style, and as such you should be guided by your manual of style, either the one you've chosen or the one thrust upon you. I use the Chicago Manual of Style, which advises the following: Do not place rhetorical or hypothetical questions in quotes. When two consecutive marks coincide, retain only the stronger (except in cases not ...


4

The current punctuation is certainly wrong because his girlfriend is undistinguishable from the other items in the enumeration. One solution is to join Bob and Christine: Andy, Bob with his girlfriend Christine, Debby, and I are going for dinner tomorrow. Another is to repeat after the great writers of old and remove the comma after Christine: Andy, ...


3

Such use of a comma is often called a "serial comma" or an "Oxford comma". It is typically a matter of style, at least where there is no ambiguity. For example, with or without the comma, your example statement I am going to buy apples, oranges[,] and bananas at the store. is not ambiguous. Omission/inclusion of the comma is optional. (According to ...


3

Etc (‘etcetera’) means ‘and the rest’, so an and is already present, making one before promotional unncecessary. As an additional thought, ask yourself if etc is really necessary. If it isn’t, then write ‘professional, personal and promotional’.


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