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I recommend the one-hyphen approach: a second-century BC inscription a second-century BCE inscription a fourteenth-century CE illumination In each of these cases, the era is really acting as a little parenthetical that just happens to be denuded of its punctuation. If you were to spell out the abbreviated phrases while using them in the adjective form, the ...


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I concur. Semi-self-sustaining would be correct. There are actually a lot of "rules" around hyphens. Here is a good source: https://www.grammarbook.com/punctuation/hyphens.asp @JasonBassford It would be a non-ice-cream-sandwich or just sandwich perhaps. It the "12-year-old boy" example. It would depend on context. If you talking about a boy, older than ...


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The correct way when I was growing up in Singapore is that it's an orang utan (two words) because 'orang' means Man in Malay (one of our national languages) and 'utan' means Forest. So literally - Man of the Forest. The pronunciation is oh-rung u-tahn, not oh-rang-a-tan which remains really strange to hear. The hyphenation probably came about when someone ...


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The Chicago Manual of Style's guidelines for hyphenated words in titles: Capitalize the first element of the hyphenated word. Capitalize subsequent elements unless they are articles, prepositions, or coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for, or, nor): High-Quality Web Services First-Rate U.S. Lawyers Bed-and-Breakfast Options in Savannah ...


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In a title, capitalize both parts of a temporary compound, says Words Into Type, a temporary compound being words that are not normally joined by a hyphen. An example it gives: "Well-Known Authors." The words well and known are joined by a hyphen only when they form a compound modifier, so they are a temporary compound. A permanent compound would be a word ...


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In all but the first example, the compound modifiers come before the noun and ordinarily should be hyphenated. However, Words Into Type says, "If there is scarcely any possibility of misreading, hyphens need not be used." Though you could argue that the examples might be hard to misread, the hyphens do add clarity and aren't intrusive and so should not ...


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In your example, I would consider group-IV to be a phrasal adjective, or compound modifier, and therefore use a hyphen, as recommended by many popular style guides. When two words together serve as a modifier for another word, many style manuals recommend hyphenating them, as for example... The built-up area of town... A brightly-lit hallway... ...


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An important point is being missed: Do not divide proper nouns or proper adjectives. English Plus


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This answer gives the general principles behind hyphenating words in English. There is no single source for hyphenation in english. While all the sources follow the same principles, different sources make different judgment calls, so it's not surprising that they give different results. No respectable source (this would include dictionaries and Hunspell) ...


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With some educated guess googling, I found a product bulletin for a solvent that is "plastic, metal and rubber safe." In addition I came across a rubber sealing materials reference guide, which includes the descriptive phrase, "Oil and Gas Explosive Decompression Resistant." For technical publications I like to follow the rule of thumb, "When in Rome, do ...


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If by "my sometimes-worried emotional state" you mean "my emotional state that is (or was) sometimes worried", I think a hyphen is optional in this context. "Sometimes" is an adverb. There is a common rule that forbids the use of a hyphen after very or after an adverb formed with -ly. But sometimes isn't in either of those categories. The Handbook of Good ...


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If it's got to be short, I'd suggest rubber compatible. Rubber safe or rubber-safe is ambiguous imo. Without a hyphen you might have a safe made of rubber or, as the other answerer noted, a safe for rubbers. With or without a hyphen, there's also a possible interpretation that it's safe against the effects of rubber rather than the rubber being safe against ...


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It is evident from various comments and general usage that opinions differ on the necessity of hyphens when a noun is being used as an adjective or adverb. In the absence of violation of any grammatical principles, I therefore suggest one makes ones own judgment on style in these cases. On what criteria should one make such a judgment? The purpose of ...


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