This is ellipsis, but more importantly, English headlines follow special conventions that are, by and large, consistent across publications. Headlines have evolved to maximize information output and minimize space, because this has been optimal for newspapers (until the Internet age, at least — but now the conventions are ingrained into the world of ...
Those are actually very different phrases. The first phrase is using "cut" as a verb, meaning essentially to get rid of something - and using "aid" as a noun indicating essentially money. The second phrase uses "Cuts" as a plural noun indicating something that has essentially been gotten rid of, and uses "aid" as a VERB indicating that the plural noun (...
Headlines are not always monointerpretable. They tend to have several interpretations - which is good, they make you read the article for more.
Actually, there are even more possibilities than the two you mention.
he may have multiple wives, and he killed the tenth one
he was married ten times - this one he murdered
he may be married or not, but he kills ...
There's no 's' because it is not a verb, it is a noun.
The sentence means
Germany's new look defence will be tested by the speed of the Ukrainian team
The Ukraine team is in a hurry to test Germany's new look defence
This is evidenced in the article itself where it says
Ukraine, while outsiders, are certain to test the Germans' new-look ...
Ukraine means in this context 'team Ukraine'.
In the same text it says
Ukraine, while outsiders, are certain [...]
So, here you see that the word "Ukraine" refers to the team with a plural word, as the verb "are" follows instead of "is".
There appear to be different conventions with regard to the collective noun team, which seem to differ between ...
"Mitt Romney, Paul Ryan to Awkwardly Hug, High Five" was The Onion’s snarky way of insinuating that when Romney selected Ryan as his running mate he condemned both of them— stuffy, constrained, powerful middle-aged white men who are not even ideologically compatible —to three months of pretending close friendship and demonstrating their credentials as "...
In ‘Yemen’s PM’, ‘Yemen’s’ is a possessive determiner. In ‘Yemen PM’, ‘Yemen’ is a noun modifying ‘PM’, in the same way that in a noun phrase such as ‘bank account’, ‘bank’ is a noun modifying ‘account’. Both are grammatical, but the second form is perhaps found especially in newspaper headlines.
Yes. Normally it can be interpreted as "is going to" or "has decided to". In headlines, that construction usually indicates that something will happen; a decision has been made.
There is a construction "Airline XY is to cut costs" which means the same thing. All the headline subeditor has done is to remove the verb "is" (as they often do).
Not Much Room, Short Implied Words Removed
Another name for this is "telescopic writing" which is also used on street signs.
The reason is to use less space on the page. I wouldn't call these 'rules' but rather common patterns of writing.
Some other patterns:
reduced use of punctuation
noun modifiers: "Poker advocate: Estimated $100M-$...
According to Wikipedia, this phenomenon is called title case, and:
Among U.S. book publishers (but not newspaper publishers), it is a
common typographic practice to capitalize "important" words in titles
and headings. This is an old form of emphasis, similar to the more
modern practice of using a larger or boldface font for titles.
So, basically, ...
This really has nothing to do with leaving out apostrophes.
In “India VP” and “Japan Minister”, it’s not an apostrophe that’s left out—it’s more that the noun is not a possessive at all. The name of the country is just being used as a noun adjunct instead of as a genitive.
This is an extremely common construction in English, but the particular case that ...
It's Headlinese, not ordinary English:
an abbreviated writing style used in newspaper headlines. Because space is limited, headlines are written in a compressed telegraphic style, using special syntactic conventions.
"xxx Station will open 1st quarter of 2015" is not a correctly formed English sentence (you would have to say: "...will open in the first quarter of 2015"). However, it is the sort of thing that you will find on signs, on public notices, in headlines, and so forth, even in Britain.
Mitt Romney, Paul Ryan To Awkwardly Hug, High Five For Next Three Months.
The ellipsis is with a comma instead of an and.
Mitt Romney, Paul Ryan To Awkwardly Hug and High Five For Next Three Months.
Scores Dead as Fire Sweeps Through Nightclub in Brazil
The ellipsis is in the verb of the first clause, and scores of what.
Scores of people are ...
This type of construction only works when the subject of the headline sentence does not change or invert.
Politician challenged by court, retracts statement
Cat climbs tree and can't get down
This can also be done with an inverted passive sentence.
Case dismissed, dropped by plaintiff
Park renovated and now reopened
Combining the two in the same ...
In the days of print media headlines had to be short to fit over the column or columns of text in the article. In order to make them shorter editors often leave out words that most native speakers could intuit from context. So the full headlines for your example would be as follows:
Russia's Head Athletics Coach is About to Step Down After Doping ...
They recommend Hilary face charges
They recommend Hilary faces charges.
The former uses the subjunctive mood, the latter does not. The subjunctive mood is used
to form sentences that do not describe known objective facts. These include statements about one's state of mind, such as opinion, belief, purpose, intention, or desire. It ...
I don't see much nonchalance in this case.
Anyway just means that something happens, notwithstanding actions that were expected to prevent it from happening.
His father forbade him to do that, but he did it anyway.
The road was almost impossible to drive on, but we tried it anyway.
Because of the storm, we attached extra lines, but the tent flew away ...
By itself I would say it's ambiguous.
It could also mean that he had murdered 10 people who were other people's wives. Of course in reality, it's likely to mean that he has murdered one person - who was his 10th wife!
Your first headline comes from The Onion, a faux-news site devoted to satire. I suspect the photo was taken at about the time that Romney chose Ryan as his vice presidential running mate. So the significant result of that action is that they will spend the next three months congratulating each other.
The second one is fairly straightforward. A number of ...
Newspaper headlines are often written in a special style, which is
very different from ordinary English. In this style there are special
rules of grammar and words are often used in unusual ways.
"Five killed as aircraft hits shopping centre" means Five (people) (have been) killed as an aircraft has hit a shopping centre.
From Michael Swan's Practical ...
I submit some other examples of headlinese: (1) Dropping of the genitive -'s. Again, this saves space. This practice is also exceedingly common in technical English (I wish I knew why), where the resulting strings of nouns can be almost unintelligible. (2) Use of the name of a country as its adjective: "France PM says ..." (the reason for this completely ...
I suppose you could call the idea you're driving at "incongruity", or maybe "juxtaposition".
As I said in my comment above, I don't think that really applies to the example you gave. Just because two things are not strictly of the same type does not necessarily make it odd or provocative to match them up.
I suppose "Bolivian fights American" would be ...
It's perfectly acceptable in day-to-day American English to omit prepositions for "point in time" expressions, and it's especially common in news media, e.g. "Things will improve, the President announced Monday". The President did not announce Monday itself, he merely made an announcement on Monday.
It is much rarer in British English and would seem very ...
If I were presented with the headline
Opera Mini to become the default browser on Microsoft’s (ex Nokia’s) feature phones
and I didn't know anything about the history of the companies involved, I might suppose that Microsoft had formerly called itself Nokia but had subsequently changed its name. The same problem would arise if the headline read