There's no rule that says definite articles should only apply to singular nouns. A definite article just means that the item(s) you refer to are in some way set apart from the general class of items by relevance, proximity, or previous reference. Consider:
Put the books on the shelf.
The dogs barked loudly.
I walked the streets alone.
Big is an adjective. Much is not. You can say "he is big" but not "he is much".
Enough modifies adjectives (or verbs). It's an adverb (or a determiner). So "he is big enough" or "he is rich enough" or "he has studied enough", but there must be a verb or an adjective for it to make sense.
Much is also an adverb/determiner, just like enough. You can often ...
As mentioned by @JRE and illustrated by Merriam-Webster, the correct phrasing recognizes that dearth is singular:
There is no dearth of aspirants for this job.
...a company-wide dearth of talent is the core reason his Chevy simply isn't as fast in 2005 as it's been in the past.
Is dearth always singular? No, and here's an example sentence:
I believe you answered your own question in your opening paragraph.
First, I am certainly aware that language is dynamic and English, like all languages, has been constructed over time by usage and culture and hasn't been "engineered". English is what it is because language is dynamic and it evolves over time because of common use and cultural shifts.
Yes, it's possible to use targeting as a noun. (Although it's not very commonly done.)
In the following, all bold text is my own.
From Gender Articulated: Language and the Socially Constructed Self:
In our corpus, women displayed the highest proportion of self-targetings and, in in keeping with the findings just discussed, this was also associated with ...
'Looks' isn't plural, the s at the end means that it is conjugated for the third person singular.
In the second sentence, look is an infinitive. This is because it doesn't have a subject, 'the cake' is the object of the verb 'make'. This is clearer if you use pronouns, for instance, 'I saw him(object) run(infinitive) away.
If you're saying that each one of the items gives confidence, then use plural agreement:
...stringent testing and uncompromising quality controls give our customers....
If you're saying that the confidence comes from the gestalt of the three items together, use singular agreement:
...stringent testing and uncompromising quality controls gives our ...
It is correct as is. This is easier to see if you rephrase the statement and put the subject ("four people") first:
"Four people exist in the waiting room who all know each other."
as opposed to
"Four people exists in the waiting room who all know each other."
When talking about the generic structure of a pyramid, I've never seen anyone use "the pyramids".
However, even though there are pyramid structures all over the world (e.g. Sudan, Nigeria, Greece, Spain, China, India etc...). arguably the most famous pyramid structures are The Egyptian Pyramids. So when someone says "The Pyramids" it's basically a short-...
Yes, but the application of it is very rare as shown by this ngram
"Targeting" as a noun is the name of something that targets. For example, a military weapon might feature automatic targeting, and this could be abbreviated to simply "targeting".
The targeting on this weapon is off by 2mm.
This would not be plural, as "targeting" sufficiently ...
As Cerberus said, usage differs between nouns. Unfortunately, there are no simple rules that are completely effective at predicting which nouns tend to take which kind of plurals.
The use of one kind of plural versus the other also may depend on context, but the way you've put it is not quite accurate ("In technical language, generally, Latin-style is the ...