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32

There are many words that have different accepted spellings between British and American English. The wiktionary.org entry for "cancelling" says: Alternative forms · canceling (US English) This implies that a single "l" is preferred in American English and a double "l" in British English.


32

I presume you mean "solution" in the sense of finding a way to overcome a problem. In that case, "solution" is the noun form of "solve". There's no need to take a noun derived from a verb and then derive yet another verb from that noun. You say "We are working on solving the problem", NOT "We are working on solutioning the problem." If by "solution" you ...


25

In English, the form V + -ing is called a gerund if it serves as a noun. For example, the gerund form of "run" is "running". (I like cats, I like dogs, I like running). However, not all V + ing forms are gerunds--in "I am running", "running" is another verb. This blog post explains that there are a few cases where you use to + V + -ing: 1) If the to is ...


25

It is perhaps worth adding the contrast identified in the ‘Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English’: When the possessive alternative is used, it focuses attention on the action described in the ‘-ing’ clause. In contrast the regular Noun Phrase form puts more emphasis on the person doing the action.


25

They're of course both grammatical, but there is a conventional meaning difference that may not be obvious, as there often is with a verb like try that takes both Equi infinitive and Equi gerund complements. Such available syntactic bandwidth is likely to get used for pragmatic purposes. In this case, the gerund is the one without any special entailments — ...


23

Yes all gerunds end with -ing. Asking why is a bit of a tricky question, but basically it boils down to the fact that there were no historical processes that messed this up. The English past tense and past participle, for example, are very complicated for reasons going back to PIE. Germanic languages all use something called ablaut for past tenses and past ...


20

The semantics of the verb allow meaning "permit" has three arguments, making it a trivalent verb. Using the linguistic terminology for thematic relations, there is the entity that is granting the permission (the agent), the entity that receives the permission (the patient), and the thing that is permitted (the theme). The verb allow can be used in three ...


20

Both are correct, but they have very different meanings. I stopped working means I once worked, and now no longer do. I stopped to work means that I once was doing something (unspecified, based on context), and I ceased from doing it so that I could work. The infinitive (to work) here has the meaning of in order to work and so that I could work. So I ...


17

To answer the original question: Yes, gerunds all end with -ing, simply by definition. A gerund is, in Latin, a form of the verb which can be construed as (i.e. has functional characteristics of) a noun – it can act as subject or object of a verb, for example, or can take a plural ending. In English, the only category which meets this definition are "verbal ...


14

First, I don't think you're actually looking for a gerund. In English, a gerund refers to using a verb as a noun, and since you don't have another conjugated verb in the last phrase, I think you're actually looking for a participle (and wikipedia tells me in Portuguese, gerúndio refers to an adverbial participle, so that makes sense) Now, as DeepYellow ...


14

As for the pronoun, both him and his -- respectively, the ACC-ing complementizer and the POSS-ing complementizer, as they're called in the trade -- are acceptable as the subject of the gerund complement clause. POSS-ing is slightly more formal and more often written, and may be claimed to be "more grammatical" or "the only correct choice" or something of ...


14

The sentences are quite similar. They convey similar meanings. Without being overly technical (not that I'm capable of it), I suggest sentence number one sounds more definite than sentence two. An appropriate comment coming after sentence one might be, for example, "[He is planning to do something.] We are not sure what he is planning, but we know he'...


14

Believing your teacher would be a mistake.  (Did you see what I just did?)


13

Morning! The below is just an hypothesis, but it sounds convincing enough to me. A gerund is special kind of word: it is both noun and verb at once (just as a participle is both verb and adjective). In its function as a verb, it can have an object: Augustus condemned his daughter's adultery. By condemning Julia, he set an example for the Empire. ...


13

The 'g' in -ing is never pronounced. What is pronounced is the velar nasal consonant represented in IPA as [ŋ]. In some dialects, this is replaced by the alveolar nasal consonant represented in IPA as [n]. This is the phonetics that the -in' ending represents. The difference between [ŋg] and just [ŋ] can be heard in the difference between the words finger ...


12

In many cases — and this is one of them — there is no difference between start with an Equi (PDF) infinitive complement clause to work again in Things started to work again. and start with an Equi gerund complement clause working again in Things started working again. Some people sometimes might use this distinction in form to signal a distinction ...


12

tl;dr Despite running being in origin the -ING inflection of the verb to run, in your “a running experiment” example, it is no longer a verb and therefore ᴄᴀɴɴᴏᴛ be either a gerund or a participle either. A rule of thumb is that “No verb = No gerund–participle”. Here it’s almost certainly an adjective because it passes the Predicate Test, but it may under ...


11

It is not true that English doesn't have any widely spoken dialects that use this. Further, you leave out a big part of the story: "A-" before a verb was a prefix quite common in 16th C. English. It is still, today, quite common in Appalachian English, in the US, which is where Dylan no doubt took his influence. It can mean "engaged in", as in "He's a-...


11

The to in this sentence is not the Infinitive Complementizer to. It's the Preposition to, part of the complex preposition prior to, which means the same as before: Samson had been a strong man prior to having his hair cut. Samson had been a strong man before having his hair cut. So the gerund clause having his hair cut is the object of the preposition ...


10

The grammatical difference is that "I love to sing" uses an infinitive construction, whereas "I love singing" makes use of a gerund. The difference in meaning is that "I love to sing" is referring to yourself singing, whereas "I love singing" could either refer to yourself singing or others singing.


10

That's a mistake. It should be Use similes to describe the animals here below. You might want to get a different book.


10

Starting a sentence with a word ending in -ing is perfectly ordinary, accepted, unremarkable English. Beginning, middle, or end of a paragraph; gerund, participle, or simply a word with that particular spelling— it does not matter. Living in an English-speaking environment, you would quickly realize that there is no proscription against it, as it is natural ...


9

If you precede the -ing form of the verb with a possessive determiner such as my, you emphasise the action. If you precede it with a personal pronoun such as me, you emphasise the person who is performing the action. I have posted about it on my former blog. For something more authoritative, you can read the British linguist David Crystal on the subject.


9

1 and 2 are correct. 3 is wrong. You could break it into two sentences: He was charged with the crime. He killed 13 people. But I think what you really mean is: He was charged with the crime of killing 13 people.


9

Consider the following sentences (stressed words are boldfaced): Cooking apples is essential for this recipe. Cooking apples are essential for this recipe. In (1), cooking apples is an example of a gerund subject complement with a (deleted) indefinite subject. As usual in a transitive subjectless clause, the direct object gets stressed. And, of course, ...


9

Confess to is what is variously called a phrasal verb or a preposition verb phrase or a prepositional phrasal verb: a combination VERB + PREPOSITION which acts together as a VERB. It takes a Direct Object, which must be a noun or noun phrase: He confessed to his admiration for his opponent. Edwards confessed to espionage on behalf of the KGB. ...


9

France being an example is one of the many ways that English has of tagging an example of a general phenomenon. Giving examples is the principal way writers identify what they're referring to by a general term like continental Europe. First, in speech, France being an example, and all the other variants below, are pronounced with a distinctly lower ...


9

It's true that you can sometimes generate a noun by adding -ing, like with "an understanding". It's not a universal rule, but in general, you can generate a noun that refers to the process of the verb — "a developing" sounds odd to me, but other examples, like "a ripening" (as in we can observe the ripening of the fruit) work for me. But my main point ...


9

It's much easier to do parts of speech if we don't confuse them with grammatical relations/syntactic functions , and if we don't get distracted by inflections. A verb is still a verb, regardless of which inflected form it is in. We'll also need to say a bit about what kind of grammar we subscribe to. The type of grammar that I work with regards pronouns ...


8

I grew up in East Tennessee, and there the 'a-' prefix before the present participle (never the gerund) was in common use and still is in limited use, although now mostly by older people. I'm acomin', Hit's arainin' hard, He's a runnin' for it - all those and many more were common. [The Hit's is not a typo - in some positions, 'hit' was used instead of 'it.' ...


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