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17

To answer the original question: Yes, gerunds all end with -ing, simply by definition. A gerund is, in Latin, a form of the verb which can be construed as (i.e. has functional characteristics of) a noun – it can act as subject or object of a verb, for example, or can take a plural ending. In English, the only category which meets this definition are "verbal ...


16

The sentences are quite similar. They convey similar meanings. Without being overly technical (not that I'm capable of it), I suggest sentence number one sounds more definite than sentence two. An appropriate comment coming after sentence one might be, for example, "[He is planning to do something.] We are not sure what he is planning, but we know he'...


14

As for the pronoun, both him and his -- respectively, the ACC-ing complementizer and the POSS-ing complementizer, as they're called in the trade -- are acceptable as the subject of the gerund complement clause. POSS-ing is slightly more formal and more often written, and may be claimed to be "more grammatical" or "the only correct choice" or something of ...


14

Believing your teacher would be a mistake.  (Did you see what I just did?)


12

Although it sounds correct and could pass without a glance, if you examine the logic of the sentences, they mean something slightly different. An on-screen keyboard allows people with mobility impairments to type data using a joystick or a pointing device. The first sentence states that people with mobility impairments use the joystick and pointing device ...


12

tl;dr Despite running being in origin the -ING inflection of the verb to run, in your “a running experiment” example, it is no longer a verb and therefore ᴄᴀɴɴᴏᴛ be either a gerund or a participle either. A rule of thumb is that “No verb = No gerund–participle”. Here it’s almost certainly an adjective because it passes the Predicate Test, but it may under ...


10

First, this is a specialist term. Much like vocabulary in medicine, engineering, math and sciences, software development, etc. The same term may be used across these domains with radically different meaning. As such it must be noted while this most certainly is an important term in the IT domain, use outside of this domain is probably a mistake. Solutioning ...


10

That's a mistake. It should be Use similes to describe the animals here below. You might want to get a different book.


10

Starting a sentence with a word ending in -ing is perfectly ordinary, accepted, unremarkable English. Beginning, middle, or end of a paragraph; gerund, participle, or simply a word with that particular spelling— it does not matter. Living in an English-speaking environment, you would quickly realize that there is no proscription against it, as it is natural ...


9

If you precede the -ing form of the verb with a possessive determiner such as my, you emphasise the action. If you precede it with a personal pronoun such as me, you emphasise the person who is performing the action. I have posted about it on my former blog. For something more authoritative, you can read the British linguist David Crystal on the subject.


9

1 and 2 are correct. 3 is wrong. You could break it into two sentences: He was charged with the crime. He killed 13 people. But I think what you really mean is: He was charged with the crime of killing 13 people.


9

Consider the following sentences (stressed words are boldfaced): Cooking apples is essential for this recipe. Cooking apples are essential for this recipe. In (1), cooking apples is an example of a gerund subject complement with a (deleted) indefinite subject. As usual in a transitive subjectless clause, the direct object gets stressed. And, of course, ...


9

Confess to is what is variously called a phrasal verb or a preposition verb phrase or a prepositional phrasal verb: a combination VERB + PREPOSITION which acts together as a VERB. It takes a Direct Object, which must be a noun or noun phrase: He confessed to his admiration for his opponent. Edwards confessed to espionage on behalf of the KGB. ...


9

France being an example is one of the many ways that English has of tagging an example of a general phenomenon. Giving examples is the principal way writers identify what they're referring to by a general term like continental Europe. First, in speech, France being an example, and all the other variants below, are pronounced with a distinctly lower ...


9

It's true that you can sometimes generate a noun by adding -ing, like with "an understanding". It's not a universal rule, but in general, you can generate a noun that refers to the process of the verb — "a developing" sounds odd to me, but other examples, like "a ripening" (as in we can observe the ripening of the fruit) work for me. But my main point ...


9

It's much easier to do parts of speech if we don't confuse them with grammatical relations/syntactic functions , and if we don't get distracted by inflections. A verb is still a verb, regardless of which inflected form it is in. We'll also need to say a bit about what kind of grammar we subscribe to. The type of grammar that I work with regards pronouns ...


9

In your examples, "enlightening" is best seen as an adjective and "running" as a VP comprising a gerund-participle form of the verb as head. Taking "running" first: it fails the usual tests for adjectivehood: (a) it can’t be modified by "very" (* The very running man); (b) it can’t occur as complement to complex-intransitive verbs like "become" (* It ...


8

Road liable to flooding The OED helpfully cites the above warning in its definition of liable: [with infinitive] likely to do or to be something: patients were liable to faint if they stood up too suddenly (liable to) likely to experience (something undesirable): areas liable to flooding The word flooding is used here as a noun rather than the ...


8

Both are grammatically correct, the meaning is the same, and neither seems particularly awkward or confusing. I'd say it's personal preference.


8

Because you need a noun to complete the phrasal verb objecting to XXX. That means you need a noun phrase there. Moving as a gerund is a noun. Move by itself is not one. You seem to have been distracted into thinking that there is a to-infinitive involved here. There is not. That to is part of object to, not part of to move.


8

Afraid of takes a noun phrase, such as I am always afraid of snakes which is often a non-finite clause with a verb in the gerund (-ing form) I am always afraid of falling I am always afraid of looking stupid I am always afraid of walking alone at night. Here the clause contains a passive verb, so the gerund is formed with the gerund of the auxiliary be: ...


8

Both sentences are correct. They have a different meaning. “Try to” implies that the action that is attempted may or may not succeed. Try to give up candy; maybe you will succeed in refraining from eating candy, or maybe you will succumb to the temptation and eat candy anyway. “Try + -ing” indicates that the action may or may not have the desired result. ...


8

This form of the verb is conventionally called a gerund. From the outside, a gerund works partly like a noun, because it can be the object of a verb, just like a normal noun: Agnes suggested sending off a balloon. Agnes suggested group therapy. Both the gerund phrase and the normal noun phrase have the same function in the main clause, that of an object. ...


7

I grew up in East Tennessee, and there the 'a-' prefix before the present participle (never the gerund) was in common use and still is in limited use, although now mostly by older people. I'm acomin', Hit's arainin' hard, He's a runnin' for it - all those and many more were common. [The Hit's is not a typo - in some positions, 'hit' was used instead of 'it.' ...


7

It's a bit tricky but you have to learn to tell whether the "To" is being used as (A.) part of an Infinitive or (B.) a Preposition. Once you develop this skill, you can follow this: Infinitive "To" = to + base verb Preposition "To" = to + Noun, Pronoun, V+ing Examples of Infinitive "To" are: would like to + base verb plan to + base verb decide ...


7

My opinion: plural except in a special case (see below). The only explicit statements I've found to corroborate my opinion are on Answers.com regarding subject/verb agreement and a chat board for college students, neither of which strikes me as particularly authoritative. Nothing I can find indicates that anything other than a plural is appropriate when ...


7

"developing" is not a noun. It's the form of a verb called the gerund, and it has a dual nature, -one of a verb and one of a substantive. Its verbal nature is shown by a) its ability to take a direct and an indirect object. b) the fact that it can have a subject (I was proud of him being my son) c) is ability to appear in different tenses (he boasted of ...


7

No. To drench is a verb meaning to saturate something with water or make it extremely wet. If you said "I am drenching" that means that you are the active agent causing something else to get wet. For example, it would be perfectly reasonable to say: I just drenched those anchovies in salad dressing. Similarly, where the rain is the agent of the wetting ...


7

Unfortunately, the linked answer is very vague, and not correct. It does point out correctly that gerunds are more common as subjects than infinitives. But it certainly doesn't provide any rule that works. The British Council is right. It depends on the predicate in every case, and often both are OK. The examples given are both correct, and illustrate a ...


7

Yes There are constructions called zeugmas (after Greek ζεῦγμα, 'a yoking') where a word or phrase is intentionally made to apply to two or more others in a sentence despite functioning differently for each. The horde of words in English that can function as various parts of speech mean that zeugmas can be created where a single word simultaneously acts as ...


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