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17

The sentences are quite similar. They convey similar meanings. Without being overly technical (not that I'm capable of it), I suggest sentence number one sounds more definite than sentence two. An appropriate comment coming after sentence one might be, for example, "[He is planning to do something.] We are not sure what he is planning, but we know he'...


15

Although it sounds correct and could pass without a glance, if you examine the logic of the sentences, they mean something slightly different. An on-screen keyboard allows people with mobility impairments to type data using a joystick or a pointing device. The first sentence states that people with mobility impairments use the joystick and pointing device ...


14

Believing your teacher would be a mistake.  (Did you see what I just did?)


12

tl;dr Despite running being in origin the -ING inflection of the verb to run, in your “a running experiment” example, it is no longer a verb and therefore ᴄᴀɴɴᴏᴛ be either a gerund or a participle either. A rule of thumb is that “No verb = No gerund–participle”. Here it’s almost certainly an adjective because it passes the Predicate Test, but it may under ...


10

First, this is a specialist term. Much like vocabulary in medicine, engineering, math and sciences, software development, etc. The same term may be used across these domains with radically different meaning. As such it must be noted while this most certainly is an important term in the IT domain, use outside of this domain is probably a mistake. Solutioning ...


10

Starting a sentence with a word ending in -ing is perfectly ordinary, accepted, unremarkable English. Beginning, middle, or end of a paragraph; gerund, participle, or simply a word with that particular spelling— it does not matter. Living in an English-speaking environment, you would quickly realize that there is no proscription against it, as it is natural ...


10

In your examples, "enlightening" is best seen as an adjective and "running" as a VP comprising a gerund-participle form of the verb as head. Taking "running" first: it fails the usual tests for adjectivehood: (a) it can’t be modified by "very" (* The very running man); (b) it can’t occur as complement to complex-intransitive verbs like "become" (* It ...


9

France being an example is one of the many ways that English has of tagging an example of a general phenomenon. Giving examples is the principal way writers identify what they're referring to by a general term like continental Europe. First, in speech, France being an example, and all the other variants below, are pronounced with a distinctly lower ...


9

It's true that you can sometimes generate a noun by adding -ing, like with "an understanding". It's not a universal rule, but in general, you can generate a noun that refers to the process of the verb — "a developing" sounds odd to me, but other examples, like "a ripening" (as in we can observe the ripening of the fruit) work for me. But my main point ...


9

Both sentences are correct. They have a different meaning. “Try to” implies that the action that is attempted may or may not succeed. Try to give up candy; maybe you will succeed in refraining from eating candy, or maybe you will succumb to the temptation and eat candy anyway. “Try + -ing” indicates that the action may or may not have the desired result. ...


9

It's much easier to do parts of speech if we don't confuse them with grammatical relations/syntactic functions , and if we don't get distracted by inflections. A verb is still a verb, regardless of which inflected form it is in. We'll also need to say a bit about what kind of grammar we subscribe to. The type of grammar that I work with regards pronouns ...


8

Because you need a noun to complete the phrasal verb objecting to XXX. That means you need a noun phrase there. Moving as a gerund is a noun. Move by itself is not one. You seem to have been distracted into thinking that there is a to-infinitive involved here. There is not. That to is part of object to, not part of to move.


8

Afraid of takes a noun phrase, such as I am always afraid of snakes which is often a non-finite clause with a verb in the gerund (-ing form) I am always afraid of falling I am always afraid of looking stupid I am always afraid of walking alone at night. Here the clause contains a passive verb, so the gerund is formed with the gerund of the auxiliary be: ...


8

This form of the verb is conventionally called a gerund. From the outside, a gerund works partly like a noun, because it can be the object of a verb, just like a normal noun: Agnes suggested sending off a balloon. Agnes suggested group therapy. Both the gerund phrase and the normal noun phrase have the same function in the main clause, that of an object. ...


7

I grew up in East Tennessee, and there the 'a-' prefix before the present participle (never the gerund) was in common use and still is in limited use, although now mostly by older people. I'm acomin', Hit's arainin' hard, He's a runnin' for it - all those and many more were common. [The Hit's is not a typo - in some positions, 'hit' was used instead of 'it.' ...


7

My opinion: plural except in a special case (see below). The only explicit statements I've found to corroborate my opinion are on Answers.com regarding subject/verb agreement and a chat board for college students, neither of which strikes me as particularly authoritative. Nothing I can find indicates that anything other than a plural is appropriate when ...


7

"developing" is not a noun. It's the form of a verb called the gerund, and it has a dual nature, -one of a verb and one of a substantive. Its verbal nature is shown by a) its ability to take a direct and an indirect object. b) the fact that it can have a subject (I was proud of him being my son) c) is ability to appear in different tenses (he boasted of ...


7

No. To drench is a verb meaning to saturate something with water or make it extremely wet. If you said "I am drenching" that means that you are the active agent causing something else to get wet. For example, it would be perfectly reasonable to say: I just drenched those anchovies in salad dressing. Similarly, where the rain is the agent of the wetting ...


7

I think your colleague is wrong. Somebody has noticed a partial pattern and has elevated it to rulehood. The use of infinitive (with and without to) vs gerund is purely syntactic, depending on the subcatgorisation frame of the matrix verb. It is only incidentally and weakly semantic.


7

The key to understanding this usage is the preposition “to” which comes after the expression “look forward:” Look forward to something means to be pleased or excited that it is going to happen. The ‘to’ in look forward to is a preposition, so we must follow it by a noun phrase or a verb in the -ing form: I’m looking forward to the holidays. A: ...


7

Unfortunately, the linked answer is very vague, and not correct. It does point out correctly that gerunds are more common as subjects than infinitives. But it certainly doesn't provide any rule that works. The British Council is right. It depends on the predicate in every case, and often both are OK. The examples given are both correct, and illustrate a ...


7

Yes There are constructions called zeugmas (after Greek ζεῦγμα, 'a yoking') where a word or phrase is intentionally made to apply to two or more others in a sentence despite functioning differently for each. The horde of words in English that can function as various parts of speech mean that zeugmas can be created where a single word simultaneously acts as ...


7

Nothing wrong with that sentence, 'Queueing' here is a gerund, essentially a noun. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/gerund


7

I would interpret them differently. "I hate Jill singing those songs" implies that you hate her actions (singing) when she sings those songs. Whereas "I hate Jill when she is singing those songs" emphasises that you hate her (Jill) when she sings rather than hating her singing.


6

This is admittedly a construction where the distinction between participles and gerunds is at its weakest. No grammatical distinction works out 100 % of the time. However, in traditional dependency grammar, this is probably analysed as a participle by most people. The reason for that choice is that it is very similar to the way the verb go can take ...


6

The sentence contains an example of a dangling modifier. Here is the opening text of the Wikipedia article of the same name: A dangling modifier (a specific case of which is the dangling participle) is an ambiguous grammatical construct, often considered an error in prescriptivist accounts of English, whereby a grammatical modifier could be ...


6

This is a strange theory that is provably wrong. It is easy to trace "I am working" back to determine that it has not developed from "I am at working", and it is obvious that the rheinische Verlaufsform is different from the English Present Progressive in other ways, not just the preposition. For starters, it uses the nominalized bare infinitive, and it uses ...


6

My impression is that 'the way of doing' tends to be descriptive - i.e., a description of the current state or practice of doing something, whereas 'the way to do something' is prescriptive; there tends to be an insinuation that the listener had better do it that way. "This is the way to do it" == Do it this way! "This is the way of doing it" == This is ...


6

The distinction between a participle and a gerund is troublesome. It looks as if the difference is to do with parts of speech or something similar. In fact, the real distinction has to do with the grammatical relations (syntactic functions). In traditional grammar, a gerund is an -ing form of a verb that heads a phrase functioning as a: Subject of a clause ...


6

I never used the terms "gerund" and "participle" when I was learning syntax, nor when I was teaching it, so I think we could easily do without those terms. However, on the other hand, I don't see a problem with the terminology, provided that one is careful. For the English forms derived from verbs by adding "-ing", there are: A. nouns. These take ...


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