False friends is the common word for that :)
As Wikipedia says:
False friends are pairs of words or phrases in two languages or dialects (or letters in two alphabets) that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning.
The article goes on to mention one of your actual examples)
False cognates, is something different. If we look again at ...
As a matter of style, many U.S. publishers follow the general rules given by the Chicago Manual of Style, fifteenth edition (2003) at 7.51, 7.53, and 7.54 under the heading "FOREIGN WORDS":
7.51 Italics. Italics are used for isolated words and phrases in a foreign language if they are likely to be unfamiliar to readers. [Examples omitted.]
Threw it together, often with at the last minute appended is frequently used for a project that was done on short notice with little planning. It often but not always implies that the quality suffers as a result.
Who designed this building? Looks like some architect threw it
together at the last minute.
When talking about computer software in ...
The answer is, unsatisfyingly, that it depends. Most native speakers aren't fluent in the borrowed language and so won't know the grammar principles there.
Sometimes things are borrowed exactly, like Latin sayings, and stand alone with no possibility of declining, like 'ceteris paribus'
Sometimes a simple thing, like a plural, if easy, is declined, like ...
cobble together (or cobble up):
To make something or put something together hastily or carelessly.
Who cobbled this thing up? Take it apart and start over.
The kids cobbled up their model planes badly.
(McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs)
However, I think there is a small nuance that sets these two ...
In Britain, I think it's normal to use (at least an approximation of) the French pronunciation.
To address your point about why many more people anglicise "croissant", I think there's a distinction between words adopted from other languages, which often get anglicised, and phrases, which tend not to. Since none of the words in "pain au chocolat" has passed ...
"Sans" is a common enough word in English that I would not bother with italics. But I also think in your sentence that the word "without" scans better, and I'd use that instead of "sans" for esthetics reasons.
There are several idioms that mean a poor and hasty solution:
"Phoning it in" - to complete a job with minimum effort
"half assed" - meaning an incomplete job or a job with poor quality
"spit and duct tape" - a hasty and or temporary solution
A look at two recent editions of popular U.S. dictionaries indicates that they do not explicitly recognize "scratch my back and I'll scratch yours" or "do me a favor and I'll do you a favor" as a distinct meaning of "quid pro quo."
Here is the entry for "quid pro quo" in Merriam-Webster's Eleventh Collegiate Dictionary ...
I would affirm quick and dirty as having the closest meaning and usage to what you describe. However, the closest metaphoric parallel is a "back-of-the-envelope" or "back of a napkin" calculation or drawing. This is often done by someone with skill, who is imagined as having a casual conversation about an idea, perhaps over lunch, and makes some quick ...
As @nohat posted, "Earthling" tends to be a common term. Science fiction has come up with others, such as "Terran" (using the Latin root, terra).
As society actually makes it to other planets, the language will naturally define this term and the nuances of its uses. While "American" could technically refer to the significant majority of people living in the ...
If you are quoting a chunk of French then it is no longer an English document: it is a mixed English and French document. For the French parts you should follow French rules, and for the English parts, English rules.
You should no more change the French punctuation rules to correspond to English punctuation rules than you should change n’existe pas to ne ...
You must, as always, write for your audience.
If you are writing for a technical journal where your audience is multi-lingual, then you should strive to get it absolutely right. That goes without saying.
If you are writing for the general public, then you would probably need to base your choices on the common usage for each word and phrase.
The use of ...
The phrase sleep like a top appears in The Two Noble Kinsmen by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare, which was first performed in 1613–14, and published in 1634.
There is a possible clue to the etymology in The Countesse of Pembrokes Arcadia, Volume 2
(somewhere between 1580 and the author's death in 1586) By Sir Philip Sidney, in which the phrase like a ...
did his homework on the bus
An American idiom that's similar to the Polish is "wrote it on the bus" or "did his homework on the bus." In the idiom, bus means school bus.
For example, Lin-Manuel Miranda tweeted in 2013, "Finishing a tune at 10:30 for actors who are learning it at 11. Horrible horrible when will I stop doing my homework on the bus I'm ...
French speaker here, living on the US East coast. It varies: they usually try to say it the French way, which is close to "pen" or "pan". I heard once "pain" as in "painful" and it was hilarious.
It should be something like "pen/pan oh shockohlah". Americans like to emphasize the "shock" instead of the "lah".
Americans don't seem to mind or be offended if ...
Most English speakers wouldn't know what to do with an â inside an otherwise English word and no context regarding source language. Some people will simply ignore the circumflex and pronounce the English word; we've seen companies do this enough times that it's lost part of its charm. Some people will go out of their way to pronounce it differently, ...
As Joshn61 said, the most common synonym is simply Verbatim.
In many contexts you could also replace it with exactly. For example:
The text was copied word for word.
The text was copied verbatim.
The text was copied exactly.
They all mean the same thing.
All languages in the world have borrowed words from other languages. That is how language works. In the title to your question there are four words of non-English origin: "foreign", "used", "modern" and "vernacular".
Although originally used with reference to an individual, viz. the "action or process of manipulating a person by psychological means into questioning his or her own sanity" (OED, Third Edition, December 2004; emphasis mine), rather than a group, the term 'gaslighting' (and the verb 'to gaslight') is now commonly used more broadly to include groups.
I've looked at the other answers, but few of them in my view really capture the essential point that the work was done too quickly.
I would suggest a rushed job.
There is also a well known adage in English which says more haste, less speed, which is connected to this.
It is also related to the well-known Aesop fable of The Hare and the Tortoise, which is ...
According to The Los Angeles Times Stylebook, "In spite of the redundancies, it is perfectly acceptable to say the La Brea tar pits. La Brea is indeed Spanish for the tar, but in English La Brea is a place name and the translation is irrelevant. Therefore: They visited the La Brea tar pits."
Another example is the El Mocambo, a well-known bar in Toronto.
No, I don’t think so. That would be like spelling et cetera as *etcetera without a space. It is not like ensemble either, which was one word to start with.
The OED has lots of French phrases of the form en XXX that have been borrowed into English, and I don’t see a single one of them that collapses its spacing: