I have seen million, billion, and trillion abbreviated as M, B, and T respectively. However, I would not bet that that is a standard abbreviation.
$3.1M settlement in Daniel McCormack priest sex abuse case for Chicago Archdiocese
Lawyers: $9M settlement for boy's cerebral palsy - Washington Times
JPMorgan reaches record $13B settlement with DOJ
The earliest usage I can track down is a quote in a 1986 Wall Street Journal article, by an IBM executive (just a few months earlier than the quote @Xanne found in the NYT, also about IBM)1:
[Events for non-marketing reps] aren't as lavish, and fewer people are invited. "That's mainly because (others) don't have their skin in the game the way the ...
The smaller currency unit or value, in countries that have one, is generically called a fractional monetary unit:
a monetary unit that is valued at a fraction (usually one hundredth) of the basic monetary unit
The link from Free Dictionary gives both the definition and several examples (like cent, centavo, fil, piaster). The definition also suggests ...
The terms sell short and short position seem to have arisen in US stock and commodity markets about 1850; the earliest use I have found is from The Merchant's Magazine, and Commercial Review, Vol. XXVI, Jan-Jun 1852, and it is already coupled with selling long:
Note that the writer (somewhat disingenuously) equates selling short with a contract for forward ...
It certainly depends on your audience. I generally use $___MM, which was, and still is, often used by accountants and economists. Before "K" was adopted as the colloquial way of writing a thousand (i.e. $35k to mean $35,000), it was common to use "M" instead; "M" being the Roman Numeral for 1,000. As a result, "M" simply became shorthand for adding three ...
The OED indicates that the relevant evolution of senses was
1. The quality of being equal or fair 
3. The recourse to general principles of justice to correct or supplement the provisions of the law 
4. In England (hence in Ireland and the United States), the distinctive name of a system of law existing side by side with the common and statute ...
Not a word, but an idiom: "it's all been money down the drain".
to waste money; to throw money away.
literally it means
From the web:
"Don't buy any more of that low-quality merchandise. That's just throwing money down the drain."
"Now, as police destroy the 200th bike they have confiscated, officers are warning parents not to ...
Perhaps it goes back to the use of tally sticks to record debt in medieval Europe. In this case a stick was used to record the debt. The stick was split in two and the two parties to the transaction each a part. The shorter part was called the foil as was held by the receiver of the funds while the longer part, also called the stock, was held by the ...
The domains are different (though overlapping to some extent), as these two definitions show (bolding mine):
In economics and political science, fiscal policy is the use of
government revenue collection (mainly taxes) and expenditure
(spending) to influence the economy. According to Keynesian
economics, when the government ...
You can use budget.
noun - an estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time.
synonyms - financial plan, forecast; accounts, statement
"your budget for the week"
If in your app, budget has already been used for the sum of all predictions, you might call each estimated expense item in the budget: an estimated expense.
The widely accepted term is minor currency unit. Also often referred to as sub-currency, minor unit or subunit.
The internationally recognized nomenclature and technical descriptions of currencies, are codified in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard ISO_4217.
At the above link you will find a tabulation of the currencies of ...
I have worked in equity markets for 20 years and poor abbreviations drive me crazy. Regretfully, until the USA goes metric there's going to continue to be problem with this.
Metric, engineering standards are useful:
m = metre
mm = millimetre
k = kilo (10^3, thousand)
M = Mega (10^6, million)
G = Giga (10^9, billion)
T = Tera (10^12, trillion)
I'd call it a waste of money, and it's a very common expression.
(noun) money spent for inadequate return
"the senator said that the project was a waste of money"
a bad use of money. "The show was a waste of money."
And a person who wastes money this way may be called a spendthrift.
Earliest use from the New York Times (usually late to the game):
I.B.M. in Joint Venture On Supercomputers By LAWRENCE M. FISHER,
Special to the New York Times Published: December 23, 1987
''As much as I.B.M.'s planning is defensive as it is offensive, they
had a lot of interest in preventing Steve Chen's technology from
falling into foreign ...
There would seem to be a direct relationship to Skin Game first referenced in 1868:
There are 2 kinds of gambling in the city, one known as the square game, which is played only by gentlemen, and in first-class houses; the other, the skin game, which is played in all the dens and chambers, and in the thousand low hells of New York. In the square game ...
The word "markup" has been suggested in comments, with the response that "markup does work but in this case the price already has a markup which is distinct from this extra value".
This site about accounting suggests that while markup can simply mean "the difference between cost and the selling price" (ie. the difference between $1000 and $2000 in your ...
I think mid price, a short form of the more obvious mid-market price is what you are looking for (though the linked articles mainly refer to stocks). I have certainly heard and used mid-market price for this.
There is some overlap in meaning between the terms: financial, meaning (obviously) 'involving financial matters', is a subset of fiscal, which has the additional meaning of 'relating to government revenue and taxes'.
(Links to definitions at Oxforddictionaries.com)
When researching specialist terms, whether law or finance or any other field, you need to use a specialist dictionary. ODO is good, but is by no means specialist. I used the list at OneLook.com and consulted definitions 28–30.
Yourdictionary.com collates a number of definitions of the word leverage, among which are
1. the action of a lever
A related phrase is to plough money into an investment.
The OED has to plough into meaning "To embed or bury in soil, etc.; fig. to invest (money, esp. a large amount) into an enterprise or business", their first three uses are:
1854 H. D. Thoreau Walden 8 The better part of the man is soon ploughed into the soil for compost.
1895 B. ...
An option in this context is a right to do something, so it makes sense to describe the option in terms of that right: a Put option is the right to put (sell) a security and a Call option is the right to call (buy) a security.
There are two parties involved:
the option holder has the right to exercise the option. They could have acquired the option by ...
The OP has several misconceptions, which will complicate the answer.
The title: 'short' to mean 'deliver the underlying asset'
This is not correct; to short means to sell an asset (e.g., dry goods, a stock, a derivative, a commodity contract) without owning the asset. Here, one would sell 100 bales of cotton, 100 shares of IBM, 1 Dec 125 put on IBM, a Jul '...
Just so we're clear on this:
My expressed desire to buy 10 shares of AAPL is called a bid
Your expressed desire to sell 10 shares of AAPL is called an offer (or ask)
The hypernym for bid and offer is quote, and the instruction by which you express this quote is an order; but, critically, n̲o̲n̲e̲ ̲o̲f̲ ̲t̲h̲e̲s̲e̲ ̲t̲h̲i̲n̲g̲s̲ ̲i̲s̲ ̲a̲ ̲t̲r̲a̲d̲e̲.
It means a large number of customers trying to withdraw their deposits in a short period of time. The bank only holds enough cash to allow a small percentage of all deposits to be withdrawn. So if the run is big enough, the bank's cash is exhausted and they have to close, at least for a short time.