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44

You may have noticed that "programmed" and "programming" stand as an exception to the usual tendency for final consonant doubling to occur in two-syllable words only when the second syllable is stressed (for example, we double the final r in occurring but not in harboring). I use "tendency" guardedly here: Various other exceptions to this tendency exist, and ...


32

There are many words that have different accepted spellings between British and American English. The wiktionary.org entry for "cancelling" says: Alternative forms · canceling (US English) This implies that a single "l" is preferred in American English and a double "l" in British English.


21

Oxford Dictionaries.com gives yeses and yesses as accepted spellings of the plural of yes, whereas searching Cambridge Dictionaries Online for yesses does not return any results. In the absence of agreement amongst widely accepted authorities, it's a good idea to turn to usage. A quick Google N-gram query for occurrences yeses vs. yesses in their library of ...


20

To be more precise, the citations in the OED’s entry for bus include 2 instances of busses and 9 of buses. In its own commentary, the OED uses buses. The British National Corpus records 1438 instances of buses and 10 of busses. The figures in the Corpus of Contemporary American English are 5139 and 116. I think that means you’re in good company if you use ...


17

The verb was borrowed into late Middle English as transferren, either from Old French transfer(r)er or directly from Latin transferre. It was stressed on the second syllable, as it is for many speakers today. Verbs ending in stressed [ɜ:] (non-rhotic varieties) or [ɝ] (rhotic varieties) typically double the final r in forming the past tense and the ...


17

As others have pointed out, buses is far more common than busses. But I see no mention of the fact that in recent decades, busses is almost exclusively restricted to the computer hardware context, where a bus is a subsystem that transfers data between components inside a computer. For reasons that escape me, buses rarely occurs in the computer context. ...


16

Wrappable. (Google Ngrams data.) A more common example, closely analogous to wrappable, is slappable. Generally, when a short vowel (like the a of wrap) occurs in the last syllable of a verb, the consonant following it gets doubled in conjugated forms: thus wrap -> wrapping, wrapped, and so on; similarly, fit -> fitting, fitted, … Conjugated forms with ...


16

Interesting question :) Reading up on this has been a pretty crazy experience. My conclusions are the following: The reason for the change from fulfil to fulfill is attributed to inflection, with the spelling modified to suit the function of the word. The reason why it isn't spelt fullfill is similar to why parallel only retains the single 'l' at the end—...


15

According to Google NGram, in British English the spelling "grandad" is more popular than "granddad", however American English, the spelling "granddad" is more popular than "grandad". American English: British English:


13

The rules are much more complicated, and I don't think it's a good idea to post them all here. Re: doubling of the final consonant in an unstressed syllable. Pam Peters (in "The Cambridge Guide to English Usage") argues that when the final syllable is identical with a monosyllabic word, the final consonant is also doubled in British English: eavesdropped, ...


13

Per the online etymology dictionary the word comes to English via Old French agreer which was derived from a gré literally to one's liking. This did come from ad gratum but not without a lengthy trip through France. The double-g wasn't present in the phrase a gré hence not brought over.


11

These words were all originally spelled with two l's (in British English, which is why the English Oxford dictionary will not recognize the single-L spelling). Webster was one of the first to publish Americanized (more phonetic) spellings in his dictionary in the late 1800s (which is why you did find it in the Webster dictionary). An American committee ...


10

Here is an Ngram chart that matches targetting (blue line) and targetted (red line) against targeting (green line) and targeted (yellow line) in British English publications over the years 1950 through 2000: The most striking thing about the chart (aside from the low frequency of all of these forms as late as 1970) is the continued low frequency of ...


9

In most cases where a word ends in (vowel)-(consonant)-e, we pronounce the last syllable with a long vowel sound. Conversely, most words that end with a double consonant get a short vowel sound. So: when adding "es", "er", "est", or "ed" to the end of the word would appear to change the vowel sound, double the consonant. Examples: quizes - ize is usually ...


8

Both are considered correct in the English language. Benefiting and benefitting both are acceptable due to two different English spelling rules. If the final syllable is not accented/emphasized and it does not end in an l then you do not double the consonant. If you say ben-e-fit, you accent ben, the first syllable. I believe it can become benefitting as ...


8

Google NGram Viewer shows that buses is more popular than busses.


8

As Barrie notes, dilemma is not only spelling truest to the etymology, it's the only one attested to in any major dictionary, and it is by far the most common. As to the cause, the aberrant dilemna is almost certainly hypercorrection; if common words like solemn, hymn, or autumn brand a silent n, then surely this Greek philosophical term would as well. Like ...


8

The difference between planned, penned, beginning which have double n's, and happening with a single n is the stressed syllable. When the syllable that ends in n is stressed, we double the n if another syllable starting with a vowel sound follows it. If we didn't double it, we might feel like elongating the vowel sound of the syllable ending with n. When ...


7

Godness is an established (if rather rare) English word, an obsolete ME synonym of godhead reinvented in the 19th century to express ‘divine element or nature’ (OED 1). Google finds this employed in a lot of religious and New-Age spiritual contexts. Godness is also a surprisingly frequent typo for goodness and, occasionally, goddess, which you may see most ...


7

Any of the first three. An argument could be made for the fourth. I'd advise that you favour the second, or perhaps the third depending on your dialect. (The OED incidentally offers yes's and yeses, while some other dictionaries offer yesses as well). The noun yes comes from a mention of the much older adjective yes. Now, how plural forms apply to mention (...


7

When we have a word ending in a single vowel and then the consonant 't', the consonant is only doubled before suffixes if that syllable is stressed. So when there is no stress we observe just a single 't'. In the following examples the stressed syllables are premarked with an apostrophe: 'rocketed e'licited 'billeted 'ratcheted 'exited However if the last ...


7

Here are some good rules of thumb for knowing when to use a doubled consonant (from David Crystal's book Spell it Out). The OP's example either has a long vowel or falls under exception 1(c). Interestingly the French cognate of the word (détaillé) has the double l. (a) To indicate that the previous vowel is short (hopping vs. hoping), except (...


7

Actually all online dictionaries suggest buffeting and buffeted with one single “t” as present participle, simple past, and and past participle of to buffet. Only wiktionary mentions the alternative double t forms. Checking with Google Books it appears that it is not an AmE vs BrE issue, but rather an archaic usage, present in the Bible for instance, ...


6

You will find buses is more popular than busses. Similarly, omnibuses was more popular than omnibusses


6

In English, double consonants and single consonants are two ways of spelling the same sound; unlike Italian, this difference in spelling does not indicate any sound difference. There are compound words such as bookkeeper where "double consonants" are indeed pronounced differently from single ones, but none of your examples are in this category; see this ...


6

I've actually thought a good bit about this over the years, and I find it interesting that not a single site, including very authoritative ones from British and American lexicography or journalism sites, really fully describe and explain this properly. Naturally, this is my own interpretation, but I think the rule covers it, with very few exceptions, and ...


6

Both exist, apparently. The NOAD, says granddad |ˈgranˌdad| (also grandad) noun informal - one's grandfather. grandad |ˈgranˌdad|, Noun - variant spelling of granddad . The OALD says the same thing, and is more specific, saying that "Granddad" is North-American English. If someone from U.S./UK can confirm, it would add more info.


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