14

"Chance" here is used in its sense of "opportunity." "Consequence-free" is a compound adjective meaning "without any harmful result." Thus, a "consequence-free chance" means an "opportunity [to act] without any result that may harm [the actor]."


13

It's not free chance you want to look at, but consequence-free as a modifier of chance. This means a chance that is free of consequence. Let's look at other uses of -free, including a couple of curious ones, for a broader understanding... The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) defines -free as meaning Clear of something which is regarded as ...


11

To identify a “no later than” date for the use in English publishing of hyphens in compound modifiers that appear immediately before nouns, I ran Google Books searches for the words booke and boke for the period 1500–1800, and then, for each match, ran an internal search for instances of well, a constraint that I instituted in order to yield search results ...


9

The rule-of-thumb I've found in researching this issue, (though no reference to a specific style guide was referenced – one site linked here) is if Latin and other foreign phrases are not hyphenated in their original language, then they are not hyphenated in English.


8

In most U.S. English style guides, the decision about whether to double- or single-hyphenate a phrase such as "spherical Gaussian based approximations" rests on whether the first word in the string attaches primarily to the noun or primarily to the modifier closer to the noun. In other words, if you are talking about Gaussian-based approximations that are ...


7

The reason one says good-looking is because someone looks good. This is just the same reason why it’s nice-sounding for sounding nice, sweet-smelling for smelling sweet, good-tasting for tasting good, bird-watching for watching birds, acid-producing for producing acid, bear-baiting for baiting bears, or even a claim-jumper for someone who jumps claims and ...


7

"well-looking" is the opposite of sick-looking, "good-looking" the opposite of ugly-looking.


7

As a native speaker of UK English, former language teacher and currently a full-time translator, the phrase seems perfectly natural to me. It's just another way of describing the difference between town and country.


6

There is no need to use any hyphens at all. These are not compound adjectives. I understand the desire to keep lexical ideas together, but the sentence's syntax performs that duty. Sincerly, a rock star turned copy editor.


6

TL;DR: Linguistically, the terms Catholic Church and church catholic (alternatively Church catholic or Church Catholic) are not interchangeable. The former refers to the theological tradition and religious institution headed by the Bishop of Rome (“the” Pope, in Western Civilization), often called the Roman Catholic Church, whereas the latter refers to the ...


5

Generally, you hyphenate words that are linked together when you want to make sure the reader knows it's a single subject. So when you hyphenate, just think if it makes sense as a single verb or noun taken out of context. So the 'best' way to write is... I'm a cat-person turned into a cat-and-dog-person. Here's my reasoning: a) I'm a cat-person-turned-...


5

I much prefer "intermediate-level student" Explanation When reading this sort of expression in English we tend to assign attributes in reverse order, e.g. A big stone wall. This is not a wall made of big stones, it is a big wall made of indeterminately sized stones. We automatically put "stone" with "wall" to make "stone-wall". In the case of '...


5

I've seen many manuscripts (and some published books) that contain compound modifiers joined by a hyphen even when the first word of the compound modifier is an adverb ending in -ly. As a matter of style, however, opinion is remarkably consistent in condemning the hyphenated form. From The Oxford Guide to Style (2002), section 5.10.1 ("Compound words"): ...


5

From The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed), 7.86: Compounds formed by an adverb ending in ly plus an adjective or participle (such as largely irrelevant or smartly dressed) are not hyphenated either before or after a noun, since ambiguity is virtually impossible. (The ly ending with adverbs signals to the reader that the next word will be another modifier,...


5

A possible word is shadow, which can be used as a noun, verb, or adjective, and which has many different senses. Overall, it has a neutral meaning, and, even though it can be, it's not inherently associated with a profession or seen as something negative.


5

With adjectives ending in -al it is quite common to form compounds with another word as the second word (sometimes with a hyphen between, sometimes as one word) and replace the -al of the first word with -o. One obvious example you've given already is spatio-temporal. Here are some more: medical - medicolegal social - sociobiology glacial - glaciotectonic ...


4

As the expression 90-minute functions as an adjective, it is not pluralised and your first option is correct.


4

From Grammarbook.com's rules about hyphen use: An often overlooked rule for hyphens: The adverb very and adverbs ending in -ly are not hyphenated. Incorrect: the very-elegant watch Incorrect: the finely-tuned watch This rule applies only to adverbs. The following two sentences are correct because the -ly words are adjectives rather than ...


4

If you were describing the salt, it would be sea salt or non-sea salt. As you're making the whole of non-sea salt into a compound adjective, (as a pendantic Brit) I agree with you & would say that the entire compound adjective should be hyphenated, for clarity amongst other reasons, hence I suggest non-sea-salt sulphate. It may be more 'ugly' but it's ...


4

Yes, at least according to the Purdue OWL: For line breaks, divide already-hyphenated words only at the hyphen: mass- produced self- conscious


4

I would prefer "criterion-based" (just as I prefer "rule-based" to "rules-based"). To me, there doesn't seem to be any good reason to prefer "criteria-based": I think the context makes it fairly obvious that "criterion-based" could refer to something based on more than one criterion. But other people might have different opinions. I'm talking about "...


4

This is not going to be a broad neither delineating, 100% reliable answer but its based on my own experience and studies about energy and especially the geopolitics of it. Among many many factors affecting a nations geopolitics in energy area, "energy self-sufficiency" plays an important role and "I" think its the unique phenomenon shaping the whole pie of ...


4

But what do you call a country that has enough water for drinking, crops, forests, etc? You should realize you're talking about two separate things: 1. Natural use of rainfall. Countries (like Israel as opposed to Arabia) or regions (like South China as opposed to the North) are usually described as well-watered Plentifully supplied or moistened ...


4

You can see what is going on by changing the sentence slightly, but using a more polite noun. That nonsense is typically liberal. Here the adverb ‘typically’ modifies the adjective ‘liberal’. That liberal nonsense is typical. Here the adjective ‘liberal’ qualifies the noun ‘nonsense’, while ‘typical’ plays the role performed by ‘liberal’ ...


3

As John Lawler comments, and as this chart makes clear,... ...rightmost isn't normally hyphenated. And there's no need for one in upper rightmost.


3

Some style guides (see website) do advise en-dashes in cases like that, but not all of them do. If you're not writing for some publication with a style guide that specifies this, I would suggest using whichever style you prefer. From what the website above says, the Chicago Manual of Style would suggest an en-dash: water-filling factor–aided ...


3

When a modifier is composed of two or more words, and it isn't of the pattern [adverb] [adjective], then it is most common to hyphenate it. If it is of the pattern [adverb] [adjective] then it may still be hyphenated if adverb in question also has an adjective sense; to distinguish e.g. "more-important points" meaning those points that are more important ...


3

We call the "single words" you're talking about compound words. It sounds like you're torn between creating closed and open compound words. The way to choose is to look at what other people are doing. The English language is always being reshaped by how we use it, so while "living room" might be two words today, who knows what will happen in 10 years! In ...


3

Hyphen usage is much less uniform than many other aspects of English punctuation, and what's more, it can be very sensitive to context; so it's hard to suggest hard-and-fast rules. But in general, long adverbs like nationally are not usually joined to the adjectives they modify, even in attributive position: so, I'd recommend "nationally top-ranked". One ...


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