14

One generally does not place an ellipsis at the beginning of a quotation to indicate the omission of material, because it is usually evident (as in your example) that the quotation is only part of the original. However you should use an ellipsis if the words as they appear in your quotation could be mistaken for a complete sentence, but in the original are ...


12

Eighteenth-century attempts to clarify the source of italics in quotations Google Books searches for various phrases containing italics or emphasis uncover two attempts from the late 1700s to distinguish between italics or other special typographic treatments that appeared in the original version of a quotation and emphatic typography that the quoting author ...


11

If you are quoting a chunk of French then it is no longer an English document: it is a mixed English and French document. For the French parts you should follow French rules, and for the English parts, English rules. You should no more change the French punctuation rules to correspond to English punctuation rules than you should change n’existe pas to ne ...


10

The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition (2003), has very clear preferences, which it lists at section 9.64 (rules paraphrased from a table): For ranges starting with a page number of 1 through 100 (or multiples of 100), use all digits of the end-range number: 3–10, 71–72, 96–117, 100–104, 1100–1113 For ranges starting with a page number of 101 ...


9

According to the MLA Style Manual✲ , 3d ed., 8.4, f./ff. after a page or line number means “and the following page(s) or line(s)”, but the abbreviation is “no longer recommended”; explicit page numbers are called for, e.g. 25-26. (Note that MLA now also deprecates use of p. and pp.) Folio (abbreviated fol., but again, the abbreviation is “no longer ...


9

Each edition of Shakespeare's plays has its own numbering of lines (or in some cases, lacks line numbering). So when you cite a line you need to: Cite the edition of the play you are using. (Unless you're doing some kind of comparative study, you aren't going to change edition halfway through your essay, so you only need to mention the edition once, not ...


8

If you find material in document A that quotes document B, you must reference both documents in your cites. The rationale for this is that selecting what's important and relevant is work and you must give credit for that work. From the Yale College Writing Centre: If the source you’re reading quotes another text, and you want to use that quoted material ...


8

The decision will in the end rest with your publisher, so I suggest you address the question to your editors—that’s what they’re paid for, and they will probably appreciate your calling their attention to the problem. In fact, the standard authority in my own field, MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, although it does not ...


7

I'd avoid "Linkography", as readers are unlikely to be familiar with it. You can write "References" instead. This works for links as well as books. By the way, be careful of the etymological fallacy. The word bibliography may contain biblio-, but that doesn't determine its meaning in the modern language. To figure that out, you need to consult a ...


7

No, you would leave out the ellipses there. The Purdue OWL has a page about this; it lists this example: According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express 'profound aspects of personality'. Even if you aren't quoting Peter's remarks in their entirety, you don't need to use elipses, because your sentence is structured in a way that shows you are only ...


6

Eh, this is tricky. MLA doesn't have an official style for citing forums, likely because they wouldn't qualify it as valid source material for academic purposes. Oddly, though, they do have a citation recommendation for Tweets (but I imagine that's because Twitter is quickly becoming a news source). I would try the following: Full name (username). Post ...


5

Bill's right that libraries and (most) bookshops don't worry about stylization within titles; and that the 'house style' for the place your writing is published is the most important factor. But if you do want to retain the emphasis on one word, the usual convention is to take out of italics the part that would normally be italicized: 'Choose the Red Pill ...


4

I visited the Purdue OWL, where they provide much MLA Works Cited guidance. I did not find any guidance specific to PowerPoint presentations, but I did find this: The example file you point to has no author information available on the slides. In PowerPoint, you can use File > Properties to check for author information, but that information might only ...


4

If you absolutely cannot reword the sentence to put the name somewhere else, then, yes, you need to capitalize de Soya. Sentences always need capital first letters. However, an extremely special case is a sentence beginning with a word such as iTunes. The lowercase i is allowed because the very next letter is capitalized. This creates a slight gray area in ...


4

It's best when you've asked the owner of the rights to the material cited (literature, generally) or used (graphics, generally), and that owner has not only given permission but also asked you in return to use that particular phrase to credit the owner. It's acceptable when you've asked the owner of the rights and the owner has given permission without ...


4

The edition you're using will typically have line numbers on the page. The editions I've used (e.g. The Arden Shakespeare series) do not typically count stage directions as lines in verse sections. Verse lines shared between characters count as a single line.


4

The reason you don't have the answer you want is because you haven't yet asked the right question. Answering your second question first (the easy one): Assuming you mean the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA), there is a link on the Wikipedia page to the APA style website. This is the only official online APA style guide, i.e. the ...


3

As I understand it, "pp 25 f" was a manuscript abbreviation of "pages 25-26", and pronounced (if necessary) as "pages 25 and following". When "f" was simpler to write than "-26", the abbreviation was useful: in these keyboard days, it seems a little affected to me. There was also "page 25 sq (sqq in plural)", or sometimes et seq, but really those are of ...


3

With regards to your first question of, it's not clear which to use when, I think it might be a matter of how you think about Wikipedia, and how you're using it in your paper: if you think of it as an online encyclopedia, then you go with 14.248 (because the heading there is Dictionaries and encyclopedias online", and other examples in the list include the ...


3

I just searched several paid and free databases of 1920s books, newspapers, and periodicals and was unable to find any examples of the word "grungy" meaning jealous or anything like that. It's possible that it was used orally in some areas, but even occasional slang would be expected to show up somewhere. My guess is that the sources that indicate it was ...


3

OED's first citations for both grunge and grungy are both from The N.Y. Times in 1965, so I think there's little chance it was 1920s slang. Even if it did have limited currency with some similar meaning, most likely that would be an onomatopoeia-assisted fluke, not a continuously-preserved usage passing across the generations by word of mouth.


3

While not yet in usage I suggest this symbol: http://composedbytheword.com/2014/03/20/proposed-symbol-for-sentence/ Here is an archive link and text of this post for future reference: In my cursory (internet) search I could not seem to find a symbol that means “sentence”. I was typing an email, had put “2-3¶s” for shorthand and also wanted to put “3-4[...


3

Punctuation is a matter of style, and as such you should be guided by your manual of style. I use the Chicago Manual of Style, which recommends that "interrogative elements" within a sentence should end with a question mark. Thus What is the purpose of human existence, or is it meaningless? is the question asked by Juan Valdez in What Do Coffee ...


3

If you read through the document that you have linked to (The Indigo Book), you will see (in section R4.1) that these terms are signals that introduce citation clauses and sentences. Section R2.1 specifies that signals should be italicised, presumably to draw the reader's attention to them. It goes on to say that, when these documents were created using ...


3

There is no ‘proper’ citation style online or offline. There are various different styles for print publications, and generally one is obliged to use the one preferred by a particular publication (its house style). Online — if it's your own website — you have the luxury of making your own decision. One caveat: the superscript numeral style, e.g. “It ...


3

Mac and Mc (and rarely M') are not dropping particles and are usually not followed by a space. They may be something else. You would expect them to appear with other surnames starting with M. There seem to be three approaches (Wikipedia has a slightly confused article): Treat them all as spelt Mac... so they all appear between Mabbutt and Madden - this is ...


3

Citation references do normally go inside the sentence, i.e. before the full stop (that's the only thing I don't like about numeric superscript references - the gap underneath and before the full stop is ugly). A footnote to the whole sentence can certainly be placed after the full stop. If you don't like the combination, it's often possible to apply the ...


2

Every journal style sheet I have seen recently discourages use of f and ff. In this day of computerized bibliographies, with much bibliographic information coming from central databases, I think page range formats are headed for standardization away from use of f. This is all distinct from p. and pp., which are prepended regardless of the number or ...


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