26

According to the following article the idea of using terminology typical of marriage relationship dates back to the ‘30s. But the terms work wife/husband are relatively recent and date to the late ‘80s. Although the term “office wife” has been around since the 1930s, the modern definition, the one that places the “work spouses” in an equal ...


25

'Software' is non-countable (like 'milk'). As a native American English-speaker who grew up with software (and a vested interest in it) and is nearing age 40, it seems like people who are quite computer literate and have been since before the age of smartphones will never say 'a software' or 'softwares' unless they're joking, or mis-educated, but native ...


24

Looking in the OED, I see two possibly relevant definitions. 1c. A goblin or elf. (From the supposition that they occasionally assumed the form of a hedgehog.) The first citation for this definition is 1584: They haue so fraied vs with bull beggers, spirits, witches, vrchens, elues, There is also 4a. A pert, mischievous, or roguish youngster; a ...


23

Green’s Dictionary of Slang dates its usage from the late 19th century; fair in the sense of justifiable: [late 19C+] (orig. UK Und.): a justifiable arrest; usu. in the tongue-in-cheek phr. it’s a fair cop guvnor, put the bracelets on... any situation seen as fair and about which there is no complaint. Wiktionary cites an early usage: ...


14

This proverb definitely shows up well before the dates you quote, at least in languages other than English. (Specifically, the year 1585.) The best source for information on this is Richard Jente's German Proverbs from the Orient, which is one source that believes that it's originally "eastern": The best evidence of the eastern source of our proverb seems ...


14

Note that, to answer your question, we cannot define the obscurity of apud, as it itself seems unimportant to be defined here. And, we shouldn't say that apud has become an English word. Apud is simply a Latin word that is surrounded by the words of English. Seeing that this word is defined in Latin Dictionary, not in Cambridge, M. Webster or Oxford ...


13

Dictionary definitions of 'urchin', 1699–1790 Urchin appears in slang dictionaries going back to B. E., Gentleman, A New Dictionary of the Terms Ancient and Modern of the Canting Crew (1699): Urchin, a little sorry Fellow; also a Hedge­hog. Like the entry in B. E.'s slang dictionary, the earliest general dictionary entry that I have been able to find ...


13

Further to GEdgar and oerkelen's explanations it probably makes sense to use gender-neutral language. Some options are: novice rookie newcomer new kid on the block That said, as far as female sportspeople are concerned, on 15 February 2018 the International Olympics Committee referred to Hannah Oeberg who competed in the Pyeongchang Olympics ...


12

The elision of /j/ in deuce etc. in North American English is known as yod-dropping and occurs after coronal consonants (those that involve the tongue tip, i.e. /t, d, n, s, z, θ, l/) within the same syllable. This makes dew/due and tune homophonous with do and toon, respectively. It is present in all of North America except some parts of the Southern US. /...


12

To expand on my comment and address some usage aspects from a UK perspective at least (I suggest reading user240918's answer first): The history of the phrase has more than a hint of sexism and out-dated power-structures in it, even if more recent use appears to have evolved. Any use must be carefully informed, and there's plenty of room for ...


11

No. It may be her debut appearance. Or her rookie appearance. But not her debutante appearance. You are correct that, in English, debutante refers the introduction to high society.


11

In terms of morphology, the verb is in the subjunctive mood (be rather than indicative is). In terms of word order, we’re dealing with a case of subject-auxiliary inversion (be before the subject). In terms of semantics, the structure can express a variety of meanings such as optative, a wish or a hope (be it the best year of your life), in which case the ...


10

The same source you use for debutant gives only the high-society meaning for debutante. I would certainly advise against trying to introduce gender-specific words into the English language at this stage, because in many places, the opposite is happening: gender-specific expressions are disappearing, and in some cases, their use is frowned upon. Especially ...


10

Context. It's left pretty obvious for the most part - the writer handles it well and credits his reader with some sense, letting them work it out for themselves - gradually, in some instances. Looking at the first few lines: What's it going to be then, eh? There was me, that is Alex, and my three droogs, that is Pete, Georgie, and Dim, Dim being ...


10

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "cop" in this sense means capture. My own search of newspapers found a really early example in multiple London newspapers, the earliest version of the story being published on September 1, 1875. A guy was caught breaking and entering and (after a chase) he was brought to the station where he said: Well, you ...


10

Flipping over to Google Ngram it appears that in the list and on the list are used fairly equally with little difference between BrE and AmE. Myself, as a BrE user, I would speak of items in the HNQ list that is on the HNQ page. One of the problems with prepositions is that they are polysemous, some argue so polysemous that they effectively have no meaning ...


9

The guardian is famous for having a propensity for errors to slip past the editors. (Apocryphally even misspelling its own name as the The Grauniad). I suspect a busy sub editor removed an adjective beginning with a vowel such as "instrumented" from the phrase "an instrumented dummy", to fit the article into the space available.


8

As a native American English speaker with lots of family who are native British English speakers: No, neither of these uses are common in AmE or BrE (I can't be certain of Australian English, but I highly doubt these are commonly used there either), however there are specific instances where they are ... not necessarily incorrect. That doesn't however mean ...


7

pip (n.1) etymonline "seed of an apple," 1797, shortened form of pipin "seed of a fleshy fruit" (early 14c.), from Old French pepin (13c.), probably from a root *pipp-, expressing smallness (compare Italian pippolo, Spanish pepita "seed, kernel"). He was the whole apple. In other words, he was British to the core!


7

In British English we have waiter and waitress. When I hear server I think computing. I went for job ads instead of a dictionary Waiter/Waitress/Bartender Featured EX4, Exeter Unspecified WAITER Featured St. Clements, OX4 £8.00 to £8.50 per hour - Good Rates, plenty of work, flexible, paid Blue Arrow Catering - Oxford Waiter/...


7

Chez is a French word meaning 'at the home of'. I believe 'apud' means the same in Latin. There is no single word with the same meaning in English, so we have to use phrases like 'at our house' or 'at the Smiths' home'. English speakers familiar with the French word sometimes use it in English to express the idea in one word.


7

Actually all online dictionaries suggest buffeting and buffeted with one single “t” as present participle, simple past, and and past participle of to buffet. Only wiktionary mentions the alternative double t forms. Checking with Google Books it appears that it is not an AmE vs BrE issue, but rather an archaic usage, present in the Bible for instance, ...


7

One dictionary that has this definition is the Middle English Dictionary, so I think it's safe to say it's a little older then the OED says: 18. (a) To shift allegiance (to or against sb., someone's side, etc.);—also refl.; also, cause (sb.) to shift loyalties; transfer (one's loyalty to sb.); (b) to change spiritual allegiance, undergo a spiritual ...


7

When he was writing 'A Clockwork Orange', Anthony Burgess who, on top of being an author was a linguist, employed a fake 'future-slang' language called "Nadsat". This language was largely based in Russian, which Burgess stated was because of a trip he had taken to Russia in the midst of the Cold War. Of course, it's not just based on Russian. Other language ...


7

Without is an adverb or preposition meaning "outside" as Merriam-Webster shows. It is less common in modern English, but its historical popularity is shown by this dictionary giving this meaning before the modern one, in both the adverb and preposition sections. It means what you would expect, once you treat it as the opposite of within. In this context, ...


6

This kind of question is well suited for a corpus analysis. In the British National Corpus there is no occurrence at all of softwares, and every occurrence of the collocation a software is part of a larger noun phrase ("a software house, "a software product", etc). Thus there is no evidence in this corpus to support use of countable software in British ...


6

All the sources cited below suggest that the term “server” meaning waiter/waitress is a typical AmE usage which may have spread because of its genderless connotation. the American Heritage Dict. gives as the first definition of server: a. One who serves food and drink. and the Cambridge Dict., McMillan Dict. and ODOdefines the above usage as AmE. ...


6

Apud is not used extensively enough in English to be considered an English word. For instance, it is not included in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) as a lemma, that is as a form of a word that appears as an entry in a dictionary and is used to represent all the other possible forms (Cambridge dictionary, my emphasis) The 2nd edition of the OED ...


6

The expression we used in Texas when I was young was simply ride [or riding] double. Here are three instances of this usage in published writing: From Edward Lessin, An Investigation of Primitive and Authority Beliefs in Children (1965): Robert's mother told him that he should never ride double on his bicycle. One day his teacher, Mrs. Smith, talked to ...


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