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49

Yes, they are pomes a fruit consisting of a fleshy enlarged receptacle and a tough central core containing the seeds, e.g., an apple or pear. Pome:Google dictionary.


29

The corresponding expression to citrus fruit is pomaceous fruit(s): Thus, the apple, crab, pear, quince, medlar, and possibly others are designated as “pomaceous" fruits, each having certain specific (as contrasted with general) natural characters in common. — US Dept. of Agriculture, Agriculture Yearbook, 1926. I could not use a Google Book NGram to ...


19

1) Why is there only one term in English for these two different species? Technically, there are more than two terms (see below). But lobster is probably not common enough a meal for the average person to warrant making any difference. For comparison, there are many breeds of ponies but I'd gather the typical person on a street will only have ever heard ...


12

According to http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pool, the word "pool" meaning a body of water and the word "pool" meaning an aggregation are different words with different etymologies. Wiktionary agrees: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pool#Etymology_1 and http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pool#Etymology_2. The second etymology explains that the word ...


9

This this and this are all "bears". This is a European robin and this is an American one There is not a unique English word for every animal in the world. And (as with "robin") it was common for English-speaking Americans to assign existing animal names to new, unfamiliar animals that they encountered in the New World, rather than invent new names. ...


9

I suspect the difference in usage is related to the difference in how usage of the various fruits developed in different parts of the world. Specifically, these plants are native to the Americas, where they were in cultivation long before Columbus arrived. They thus would have been first encountered by English-speakers in the Americas as a "going concern". ...


8

Kaspar von Greyerz, Connecting Science and Knowledge: Scenes of Research (2013) has an interesting comment on the subject of common species names in the seventeenth century: While it is beyond my scope to give a thorough analysis of folk species in early modern languages, the evidence suggests that late medieval and Renaissance Europeans were generally ...


8

In medicine we call this the phalanx. Even though technically the term refers to the bone itself, it still describes the sections of the finger. Phalanges is the plural of phalanx. The patient has an injury to the soft tissue of the distal phalanx of his 3rd finger. You could also just call this the distal third of the finger. In layman's terms we'd ...


5

Sometimes a language has a specific name for each variety of a certain species, but usually it does not. And there is a good reason for that: it's easier and more practical. There are more than twenty varieties of apples in the Plant Kingdom and it would certainly be clumsy to have a different name for each one of them. When you go to a grocery store you ...


5

“Crayfish” also known as “lobster”, “langoustine”, “scampi” . . . (you get the picture) It appears over the centuries, the terms for shellfish such as lobster, the Norway lobster, scampi, crayfish, prawn, and even shrimp were used interchangeably in different countries and in different languages. It's of little wonder that today, the term lobster is ...


4

This is a very interesting question. Unfortunately, I have not been able to find enough information to give more than a partial answer. But I hope it will be of some use. According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the prefix "pro-," meaning "before," comes mainly from the Greek prefix προ-. It is cognate with the Latin preposition pro meaning "for, ...


4

In a comment, someone said: Oxford Dictionaries (now Lexico) say notum (which exists as a stand-alone word as well, without the pro-) is from Greek νῶτον referring to the back. So the notum is a plate on the back of the thorax, hence the ‘back’; the pronotum is the notum on the prothorax. – Janus Bahs Jacquet Below is a screenshot from Google, which ...


4

Janus Bahs Jacquet left a comment pointing out that νῶτον exists as an independent word in Greek (a neuter noun) with the meaning "back". See the linked LSJ entry for further details. A synonymous variant masculine form νῶτος also exists. I think it's not really any more accurate to call -notum/-notus a suffix than it is to call -arm a suffix in ...


4

As a biologist, but not a physiologist, I’m a little nervous answering questions about the nervous system. But if I were a psychologist I might have the nerve to say that the problem lies in the question, rather than the answer. The answer appears simple. “Nerve” is the noun, “nervous” is the (latinate) adjective. But the question suggests that the poster is,...


3

You might like indigeneity, according to Oxford Living Dictionaries it means: The fact of originating or occurring naturally in a particular place. This term allows for multiple subcategories (some suggestions below): native (occurring naturally in a particular place) non-native and invasive (invasive) non-native but not invasive (not occurring ...


3

From what I can tell, microorganism is your best bet. Microbial population biology is the application of the principles of population biology to microorganisms. ... Microbial population biology, in practice, is the application of population ecology and population genetics toward understanding the ecology and evolution of bacteria, archaebacteria, ...


3

A "pool" just means a collection of things. It simply comes form the french "poule" which just means like "collection", "box with money in it", "the money in the middle when gambling" The only use of the word "pool" in English is for things like that .. a "pool" of programmers (you have ten programmers, available for work), a "pool" or horses (you have ten ...


3

While it's not really a matter of English choice since it's decided by international standard (see Frank's comment above), I think the base justification was originally a philosophical statement, viz., that a species is a Form (where Form here means Platonic form or Aristotelian essence). See for instance here. By convention, in philosophy, these were/are ...


3

In the world of horticulture and pomology (the study of fruit), the term "pome fruit" to describe this group is common everyday language in 2019. Citrus and "stone fruit" (plums, peaches and cherries) are two other big categories of tree fruit.


2

If I understand your question correctly, you want to know whether the fact that the initialisms "BOD" and "OD" are spelled in all caps has a carryover effect requiring the spelled-out terms to be initial-capped (that is, to be rendered in the middle of regular text as "Biochemical Oxygen Demand" and "Dissolved Oxygen"). I have never seen a style guide that ...


2

Acutilobate: Latin acutus (“sharp”) + lobe (botany) Having acute lobes, as some leaves. The word very likely comes from the Latin acutilobus: Having pointed stems Used almost exclusively as a taxonomic epithet. Searching for "acutilobus" in Wikipedia yields: Orectochilus Acutilobus, a beetle Amaranthus acutilobus, a species of ...


2

Basically, all taxa down to and including genus (but no further) are considered proper nouns, and thus are capitalized. However, only Genus species must be written in an italic Latin script; higher taxa aren’t italicized. Even papers written in other scripts than Latin (say, in Greek or Cyrillic, or in Chinese or Japanese) are expected to switch to ...


2

No single term would cover both viruses and bacteria because there are other biological entities that are similar enough to each, such as prions or protozoa, that would need to be covered by a word that included viruses and bacteria. The context in which you want to use this term would be useful. For non-technical audiences, you already said that microbe ...


2

There are differences of opinion on the strict definitions of some of the terms. So far, the closest I've come to an authoritative source is the Macmillan dictionary; Limbs and appendages. Arms and legs are not extremities. The consensus (Macmillan and other discussion I found) is that limb is the appropriate term. Hands and feet are appendages (although ...


2

Regarding whether "pome" is used other than as a technical term in botany, I can provide at least one example of its general use in the poem "Old Sir Faulk" by Edith Sitwell which describes "An old dull mome / with a head like a pome." The poem is part of the collection Façade, written to be recited over instrumental music by William Walton. More ...


2

(1) Words used to describe agglomerations, like 'soup'and 'gravy', can often be used in either non-count or count mode: "I've got soup on my shirt." [private communication] .......... 'Our hearty, easy-to-make Knorr gravies come in a variety of delicious flavours.' [Knorr® advert] With antibody, the same behaviour is found: 'the pipette ...


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