32

The etymology of "versus" is pretty simple. It came from Latin and it was originally used in English in the law sense (as it's still used today: Roe v. Wade). Later on it started to be used more flexibly. There are several abbreviations that have been used for versus: v., vs., and ver. Both vs. and v. (with and without the period) are mentioned in Oxford ...


24

'Trans' is a prefix meaning 'cross', as in 'Trans-siberian Express' or 'Trans-continental railway'. X is used as an abbreviation of 'cross', thanks to its resemblance to a cross, and despite the shift in meanings of 'cross'. So XLATE or XLAT is used as an abbreviate of 'translate'. XFER is similarly used as an abbreviation of transfer.


16

There is no truth in the "vel" bit. "Vel" isn't even the way to say "or" in that sense. The desired meaning is an exclusive "or", and that in Latin was "aut".


10

This is an ordinal indicator. In written languages, an ordinal indicator is a character, or group of characters, following a numeral denoting that it is an ordinal number, rather than a cardinal number. In English orthography, this corresponds to the suffixes -st, -nd, -rd, -th in written ordinals (represented either on the line 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th or ...


6

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it has been used in IOU since 1795: An I.O.U. is admissible evidence of a debt without a stamp. Espinasse's Rep. (margin note) As for standalone examples, the first one given by the OED is from 1840: There was no one but the plaintiff to whom the ‘U’ in the document [an IOU] could be applied. Manning and ...


6

Eh.... depends? An abbreviation is a shortening of something (a(b) - brevere; to make brief). Etc. spelled out is et cetera. Et cetera is composed of et ("and"; French still retains this form with an unpronounced "t", Spanish drops the final consonant and just has y) and ceter-a, the plural of ceter-us, meaning things (plural) left behind, or remains, ...


5

According to Green’s Dictionary of Slang the abbreviation dates back to the 16th C. so probably a BrE expression originally. Note also the Black AmE usages from the ‘60s meaning friend or as a generic term of address among males. cuz n.: also coz, cuzz, cuzzy; [abbr. SE cousin, a development of mid-16C–mid-19C coz]


5

I think you are looking for the word "ditto". From Merriam Webster's: ditto a thing mentioned previously or above —used to avoid repeating a word —often symbolized by inverted commas or apostrophes


4

As others have said, how you state these things is not set in stone. Grammar.CCC offers the following on http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/abbreviations.htm Titles before names: Mrs., Mr., Ms., Prof., Dr., Gen., Rep., Sen., St. (for Saint) Notice that Miss is not an abbreviation, so we don't put a period after it. Ms. is not an abbreviation, ...


4

"Schizophrenia" comes from Ancient Greek σχίζω (skhízō, “to split”) + φρήν (phrḗn, “mind, heart, diaphragm”). (source: Wiktionary) "schizo tech" is a reference to schizophrenia. Just like in schizophrenia, multiple personalities can appear in the same person, schizo tech refers to fiction where technologies from multiple eras appear at the same time.


3

tl;dr : Use either one, unless you have a specific stylistic issue with one. Here's what professor Stephen Boyd says, adjusted slightly to make the spoken version more readable. This is a question of style, and, by the way, this is bad style. and Nevertheless ... it's somewhere in the yellow range ... it's not what such that means in English ... ...


3

The word here really is “damned”. The OED, in an entry that seems to have been written in 1894 and not been updated since then, has this definition of the word: Used profanely as a strong expression of reprehension or dislike, or as a mere intensive. Now usually printed ‘d——d’. This was a pretty common way for vulgar words to be censored in the 1800s. ...


3

Turning Dan Bron's comments into an answer: It means damned. That profanity was considered unfit to print at the time. This is very plausible to me, but there doesn't appear to be a written source for it. We might be unlikely to find one: It’s not an abbreviation, it’s a redaction. 19th C authors were big on redaction (believe they thought it lent an ...


3

Technically, "kWh" is an initialism for both "kilowatt hour" and "kilowatt hours". The one that applies depends on whether you're referring to more than one, e.g. 1 kWh = 1 kilowatt hour; and 2 kWh = 2 kilowatt hours. the "per" is not assumed, but you can replace it with a "/", e.g. 10c per kWh; or 10c/kWh. edit: for what it's worth, I found a similar ...


3

I've seen "vide quoque," but I haven't seen it abbreviated as "v.q.," not like how you see "i.e." or "e.g." Incidentally, it requires a comma after it like other similar Latin expressions. Example: In the New Testament, The Gospel According to Matthew provides Jesus' genealogy in chapter 1 (vide quoque, The Gospel According to Luke, chapter 3). https:...


2

According to the free dictionary, s.d. can be defined as: s.d. or sine die - without a day fixed [literally: without a day] In the context of literature citation s.d. and n.d. have the same meaning.


2

I think "or" works in all your examples: To address a woman in writing, use "Ms"; or "Mrs" if you know she is married. but I think I'd probably have turned it round, and put the default or usual case at the end: To address a woman in writing, use "Mrs" if you know she is married, otherwise use "Ms".


2

You don’t use the possessive with scientific units. In fact, you probably don’t have to use the possessive with any units, although there are figures of speech that appear to do so, e.g. a day’s pay for a day’s work. In any event, the abbreviations for SI units always appear in their simple form directly after the number they apply to. Plural and ...


2

Write (eom) or <eom>at the end of the e-mail subject. EOM (end-of-message). EOM stands for "end of message." People who exchange a great deal of e-mail sometimes write a very short message in the subject line of an e-mail note and conclude it with: (EOM). This is a little faster to send and saves the receiver from having to take the ...


2

I am not familiar with theological texts but I suppose that these abbreviations have the same meanings as in scientific documents. As I have noticed in my readings, content-independent abbreviated words are mostly in Latin or English (or in another language depends on the context) in these type of texts. I am using Wiktionary to solve such puzzles. You can ...


2

At least in the case of "1960's soul to 1990's house," I share Colin Fine's view that you don't need an apostrophe at all. Some style guides undoubtedly differ on this matter of punctuation—as they do on many others—but a number of major style guides the oppose using an apostrophe before the s in decades or centuries rendered as numerals. From The ...


2

Like your barber, Uber drivers appreciate a tip. or more direct After a snip, you tip ? Appreciated your trip ?


2

Whether you need to mention their titles is subject to changing fashion both over time and in different countries. In my current (UK) university I observe that these days titles are rarely used outside extremely formal situations, so that, in the acknowledgements section of a thesis or book, thanks would be given to Bill A, Jane B, Fred C and so forth, ...


2

This Wikipedia article says "Whether this word is printed as OK, Ok, ok, okay, or O.K. is a matter normally resolved in the style manual for the publication involved. Dictionaries and style guides such as The Chicago Manual of Style and The New York Times Manual of Style and Usage provide no consensus." Older sources do often write "o.k." or "O.K.", but the ...


2

In my experience you should avoid abbreviating it (in papers, textbooks and theses). Some style guides avoid abbreviating "figure", "equation" etc. even though those are much more common. On the rare occasions an abbreviation is used, it's never "sect." but "sec." (and in a few old texts, just "s."). "Sec" is an (incorrect) abbreviation for second, and "sect"...


2

The abbreviations are almost certainly club references or academic affiliations. I'd go with "Junior League" for Jl, but it would be a guess. Sg. could be local to wherever this SR is from, or it could be made up, seeing as how this is a fictitious register. Cda appears to be Colonial Dames of America. Google has published the 1909 NYC Social Register, and ...


2

The knobs are so that the servers can depress them, and keep track of what is in the cup. For example, on the web, I can find a picture of a lid which has knobs labeled diet, tea, cola, other. When a server fills a cup with tea, they depress the knob labeled "tea" on the lid so as to make sure the customer gets the correct cup. I have no idea what L, NG, ...


2

I wouldn't call "&c." a slang term, given that even the Oxford English Dictionary used it in 1884 (see page 5 of this excerpt from the OED web site): Hence, while the senses are numbered straight on 1, 2, 3, &c., they are also grouped under branches marked I, II, III, &c., in each of which the historival order begins afresh. Subdivisions of ...


2

If UEFA is pronounced (or possibly even only thought of) as an initialism, standing for Union of European Football Associations, then the definite article is required. In this case, the article relates to the noun immediately following, that is, UEFA not committee: A member of the Union of European Football Associations' executive committee... A member ...


1

Tyler Schnoebelen in an article entitled The 3 R’s and 5 W’s of the 4 P’s on Corpus Linguistics suggests that these turns of phrase which are alliterative lists are numeric mnemonics. Lists are a form of semi-structured data. They can be immensely useful in Natural Language Processing. People will often group related items in lists, especially so if they ...


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