Questions tagged [style-manuals]

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35 views

Is there a standard way of referring to electronic files?

If I'm writing about a specific computer file - let's say a file which looks, in some view, to be named ExampleFile.pdf (which is already problematic, since what you see might depend on the details of ...
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3answers
194 views

Is it possible to have an interrogative after an imperative connected with coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence?

I know rephrasing, using semicolon, or just splitting it into two sentences are probably the possible options here (the best choice, however, is my side question). Consider the following as examples: ...
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24 views

How can I correctly reference a source directly in an article under Harvard-style rules for publications?

I am trying to reference a source directly in an article that I am writing using “Harvard-style” referencing. The source I am using is an article published on a radio station’s “news articles” page. ...
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1answer
54 views

Role of “that” in the beginning of a sentence?

IN EARLY 2020, with the coronavirus pandemic tearing across the world, most people thought it unlikely that a vaccine would arrive any time soon. And as work to develop vaccines began, there were dire ...
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43 views

Which is the proper way to use (and mark) nested parentheses?

I found some posts on whether it is acceptable to nest parentheses (e.g. here) but there is no discussion yet about which parentheses should be used when nesting, and how. These are some alternative ...
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1k views

Is “Black” correct, incorrect, or could it be used as either “Black” or “black”? [duplicate]

I was reading an article that I was assigned by my professor, and I came across the following: “We’re the ones getting killed,” Los Angeles Clippers coach Doc Rivers, who is Black, said in an ...
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1answer
93 views

“People” was not to be preceded by a number, as in “Fewer than 30 people showed up”

At one time, some usage guides maintained that people could not be preceded by a number, as in Fewer than 30 people showed up. https://www.wordreference.com/definition/people However, I cannot find ...
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39 views

It has been used correctly this phrase in this paragraph?

I am wondering whether the following paragraph is clear. I am particularly concerned about the last phrase (emphasized). Joined work with local authorities to find alternatives to confront climatic ...
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33 views

What's the reason for using quotations with titles of works?

I have seen that in some styles for documenting sources quotations marks are used for the titles of short works. What's the reason for setting this as the convention? This seems like a use-mention ...
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2answers
134 views

“Two Fewer Items” or “Two Items Fewer”?

If I have 10 items in my bag and my friend has 12, which of the following do I say? I have two fewer items than they do. or I have two items fewer than they do. In this page from CMOS, they say: ...
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43 views

When a noun followed by a restrictive clause is preceded by “whichever” or “whatever”, it is incorrect to introduce the clause with *that*

When a noun followed by a restrictive clause is preceded by whichever or whatever, it is incorrect to introduce the clause with that in formal writing: Whatever book you want to look at will be sent ...
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19 views

How to highlight model or category names in scientific text (if they are ordinary words)?

For example, there are two sentences The government is considering that the crisis will follow a soft scenario ... Dr. Jones has calculated soft and hard crisis scenarios. The input data was ... In ...
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2answers
49 views

Is there an implied be verb in the sentence “American workers facing or are facing”?

American workers facing a less prosperous future than their parents’ generation have gotten the message—or at least a version of it. Can anyone please explain the structure? Is there any implied be ...
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1answer
64 views

All (*of) the students/contracts [duplicate]

According to the Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English Although some object to the inclusion of of in such phrases as all of the students and all of the contracts and prefer to omit ...
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18 views

Can we use quotation marks to refer to a specific term on a website?

Here's the paragraph: My first inclination is to find the search bar and type the word “Graphic design”. But, there is no search bar. On the top left panel, there are 3 tabs : “Courses”, “Programs”, ...
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1answer
41 views

Do you write “AT 123.com”, or “ON 123.com”? US English

US English I have read other answers on this very question, and no one seems to be able to come up with a clear cut grammatically correct solution. For a website/platform is it: A) At 123.com, you ...
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2answers
1k views

“Enact Change” - Is it correct?

"How to enact change in..." "We enacted change by..." I've seen this used in quite a few contexts, but it doesn't seem to make much sense when I look at the word "enact" in the dictionary. From ...
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2answers
46 views

Recommended way to format copyright?

I'm working on a website and want to have a short mention of the copyright of said website in its footer. What is the recommended formatting for such a thing? I've seen "© YYYY Company", "© Company, ...
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3answers
270 views

What can I call a longer passage in an academic work (text equivalent to “Figure”)?

I want to number blocks of texts in my work (parts of a movie script or something the creators said) so that I can refer to them throughout the essay. Is there an equivalent to 'Figure' to label these ...
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33 views

Should the asterisk of a postscript correspond in size to the first asterisk, or be the same font size as the postscript's lettering?

The former makes sense in terms of its intent--which is to take off where it leaves off, the reason why an asterisk is used on both ends--but perhaps this is trumped by the importance of font size?
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26 views

Has “which were” been omitted before “ noted” in this text?

Has "which were" been omitted before " noted" in this text? But there is no other evidence that the Persians of this period were the slaves of any such superstitions as that noted by Ammianus.
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45 views

Is “replace it by x” actually correct?

I've always been under the impression that, in standard English, "replace" is only paired with "by" in the passive voice, and that "replace with" is the correct active ...
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1answer
130 views

When did the UK stop using full stops in abbreviations and acronyms?

I have noticed that in older (usually over 30 or 40 years old) British books and newspapers, abbreviations are without exception typeset with in full stops, as is still the practice in the United ...
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2answers
52 views

Reference request: interesting writing on the topic of descriptivism and prescriptivism?

It seems to me that descriptivism versus prescriptivism is a false dichotomy. On another stackexchange site, I was recently moved to interject, in a hot and heavy dispute over split infinitives: -- ...
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3answers
122 views

Where and when did the practice of using two spaces in the beginning of each sentence start, and is it still recommended?

For many years (decades at this point), I've noticed that, at least in plaintext environments, "serious" and/or "old-timer" people seem to always type like this: This is a sentence.  And here comes ...
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1answer
225 views

Distinguishing lowercase proper nouns in paragraphs

I'm writing a case study about a client whose name is completely lowercase. How do I differentiate the client's name from the rest of the text, making it clear to the reader that it's a proper noun? ...
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1answer
218 views

Can I use “innovate” as a transitive verb? [closed]

For example, is it OK to say: "We're innovating our device"? Or would I have to say something like "We're innovating in order to change our device"?
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2answers
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Chicago Manual of Style Headline-Style Capitalization

In the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, §8.159, the following rules are given (among others) for headline-style capitalization: Capitalize the first and last words in titles and subtitles ...
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1answer
63 views

Punctuating a question containing a quotation that itself contains a question, in MLA format

My literature teacher was explaining punctuation and its relation to quotations when writing a paper according to MLA guidelines and I thought of a question that he didn't have an answer to. I figured ...
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1answer
98 views

Term for the error in the reason is because

A common error is to say the reason is because instead of the reason is that. Is there an attested or unattested term for this kind of error? (I'll leave it open exactly what kind of error it is.) (...
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29 views

APA reference for uppercase word in title of book

I need to complete references for an assignment in APA format, but one of the books has an uppercase word in it and I'm not sure if it should remain uppercase or be changed to lowercase: The SAGE ...
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1answer
53 views

What is the correct way to refer to someone during when they previously held a different rank/position/title?

Many public officials have accomplished much over the course of their careers, having served in various capacities over the years. For example, Leon Panetta represented CA's 17th district in the ...
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1answer
732 views

Is “the most amount of {countable things}” ever an acceptable replacement for “the greatest amount of {countable things}”?

A recent BBC article reads in part, Yellowstone officials say bison can run up to 30mph (50km/h) and are the animal responsible for the most amount of injuries within the park. The phrase “the ...
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1answer
61 views

Comma between proper noun and day name

In this recent CNN article, I found the following sentence: It was one of two incidents involving South Korea, Tuesday. It seems the comma is intentionally being used to separate the two proper ...
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1answer
87 views

When to use “And” at the start of sentence? [duplicate]

I know that and is used to join two sentences or phrases. There are some places I've read that have And is used at the beginning of a sentence. What are the occasions when this is done?
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40 views

Is it ok to have a semicolon after a colon or em dash? (or other variations)

I've looked all over but have not found this example. Can one use a semicolon after a colon or em-dash (or similar doubling up combinations). Is it a matter of style or is there a fast rule? e.g.: ...
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1answer
304 views

“Kind” or “Kinds”?

I understand the basic singular/plural agreement when using kind/kinds: This kind of person Those kinds of people But what do you do if the subject is not the plural "those" but rather the ...
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1answer
33 views

Love Experiences? Like Bonuses? Are these question fragments correct grammatically? [closed]

Or are they a product of digitalization of writing, where we shorten everything?! "Love Experiences?" "Like Bonuses? Get more Rewards and Discounts" ...can one use these statements in writing or ...
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1answer
124 views

How does one read aloud a birth year with no death year? Eg: John Smith (1994 – )

It is common to notate someone's lifespan using the syntax [year of birth] – [year of death]. When the subject is still living, you simply omit the death year, such as 1994 –. When reading this aloud,...
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1answer
81 views

HAVE (negation, contraction)

Why is (1) considered correct, but not (2) ? (1) This would have been such had it not been for... (2) This would have been such hadn't it been for... P.S.: Besides, should there be commas as ...
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1answer
30 views

Past Progressive vs Past Perfect Progressive in the sentence below [duplicate]

Do both sentences (below) have the same meaning? He was doing landscape work before he was hired by the taxi company. He had been doing landscape work before he was hired by the taxi company.
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81 views

In search of a Grammar text, of any vintage, that covers such as the below

I've searched websites, written to Mr. Barth and William Safire, scanned bookstore shelves, and buttonholed likely prospects in search of a grammar text that would address matters in the manner of the ...
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1answer
69 views

Capitalization of titles in an essay where the original work does not capitalize its title according to style (MLA)

In my essay (MLA), I talk about Kendrick Lamar's album titled good kid, m.A.A.d city (stylized like that). Which of the following ways would be the correct way to title my essay: Kendrick Lamar's ...
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1answer
7k views

Two middle initials / data entry

When inputting names to a database (used by English and non-English language users) what would be the preferable way to tackle a name with two middle initials? John George William Doe for example. ...
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1answer
257 views

Is “there is no longer enough resources” correct?

Is "there is no longer enough natural resources to support economic growth" correct? Should it be There are no longer enough natural resources as verb should agree with noun "resources" which is ...
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1answer
678 views

Why isn't {-able} considered a free morpheme?

So the question is that if the morpheme, {-able}, is considered a bound morpheme, however, I am not sure why it cannot be used by itself and be considered a free morpheme, i.e. I am able to do this. ...
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4answers
5k views

Is the correct pronunciation of “Have you seen Mary's book” “Mary book”?

So there is this question about the pronunciation of the noun possessive inflection. A certain text states that a zero allomorph is used by certain American English speakers for the noun possessive ...
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6answers
3k views

Verbs after 'as well as'—is this Merriam-Webster example wrong?

Before branding this question a duplicate, please note that I have already noticed some questions here pertaining to the use of 'as well as'. I have also noticed that none of the answers to them are ...
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1answer
44 views

Defining and Non defining Relative clauses

Is the following sentence a define or not defining relative clause. Since, when we remove the part enclosed in commas, the remaining part doesn't make sense, I think it is a defining relative clause ...
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1answer
127 views

Citations in Chicago Style For Direct Quote and Subsequent Paragraph - Two Citations and “Ibid.,” or One?

I apologize for the political nature of this quote, but this is what I'm working on. I am using the Chicago Manual of Style. I am wondering if, when quoting a comment in a medium-length section that ...