Questions tagged [style-manuals]

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Difference in the meaning of sentences

In 'Elements of Style' by William Strunk under rule #7 "A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to the grammatical subject" refers to multiple examples which I believe is ...
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1answer
75 views

When did the UK stop using full stops in abbreviations and acronyms?

I have noticed that in older (usually over 30 or 40 years old) British books and newspapers, abbreviations are without exception typeset with in full stops, as is still the practice in the United ...
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42 views

Serial comma in University of Oxford Style Guide and the house style of OUP

On p. 13 of the University of Oxford Style Guide, Hilary term 2016 we see ✔ I ate fish, bread, ice cream and spaghetti. ✔ I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. Note ...
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3answers
98 views

Where and when did the practice of using two spaces in the beginning of each sentence start, and is it still recommended?

For many years (decades at this point), I've noticed that, at least in plaintext environments, "serious" and/or "old-timer" people seem to always type like this: This is a sentence.  And here comes ...
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1answer
84 views

Distinguishing lowercase proper nouns in paragraphs

I'm writing a case study about a client whose name is completely lowercase. How do I differentiate the client's name from the rest of the text, making it clear to the reader that it's a proper noun? ...
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2answers
114 views

Chicago Manual of Style Headline-Style Capitalization

In the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, §8.159, the following rules are given (among others) for headline-style capitalization: Capitalize the first and last words in titles and subtitles ...
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1answer
43 views

Punctuating a question containing a quotation that itself contains a question, in MLA format

My literature teacher was explaining punctuation and its relation to quotations when writing a paper according to MLA guidelines and I thought of a question that he didn't have an answer to. I figured ...
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25 views

APA reference for uppercase word in title of book

I need to complete references for an assignment in APA format, but one of the books has an uppercase word in it and I'm not sure if it should remain uppercase or be changed to lowercase: The SAGE ...
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1answer
46 views

What is the correct way to refer to someone during when they previously held a different rank/position/title?

Many public officials have accomplished much over the course of their careers, having served in various capacities over the years. For example, Leon Panetta represented CA's 17th district in the ...
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1answer
41 views

Comma between proper noun and day name

In this recent CNN article, I found the following sentence: It was one of two incidents involving South Korea, Tuesday. It seems the comma is intentionally being used to separate the two proper ...
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1answer
74 views

When to use “And” at the start of sentence? [duplicate]

I know that and is used to join two sentences or phrases. There are some places I've read that have And is used at the beginning of a sentence. What are the occasions when this is done?
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33 views

Is it ok to have a semicolon after a colon or em dash? (or other variations)

I've looked all over but have not found this example. Can one use a semicolon after a colon or em-dash (or similar doubling up combinations). Is it a matter of style or is there a fast rule? e.g.: ...
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1answer
99 views

How does one read aloud a birth year with no death year? Eg: John Smith (1994 – )

It is common to notate someone's lifespan using the syntax [year of birth] – [year of death]. When the subject is still living, you simply omit the death year, such as 1994 –. When reading this aloud,...
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1answer
59 views

Capitalization of titles in an essay where the original work does not capitalize its title according to style (MLA)

In my essay (MLA), I talk about Kendrick Lamar's album titled good kid, m.A.A.d city (stylized like that). Which of the following ways would be the correct way to title my essay: Kendrick Lamar's ...
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1answer
2k views

Two middle initials / data entry

When inputting names to a database (used by English and non-English language users) what would be the preferable way to tackle a name with two middle initials? John George William Doe for example. ...
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1answer
111 views

Citations in Chicago Style For Direct Quote and Subsequent Paragraph - Two Citations and “Ibid.,” or One?

I apologize for the political nature of this quote, but this is what I'm working on. I am using the Chicago Manual of Style. I am wondering if, when quoting a comment in a medium-length section that ...
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1answer
40 views

What sort of phrases cannot be restrictive or non-restrictive?

The Chicago Manual of Style says A phrase that is restrictive—that is, essential to the meaning (and often the identity) of the noun it belongs to—should not be set off by commas. What sort of ...
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1answer
319 views

Works cited multiple pages in MLA

I'm currently writing an essay and cites a source multiple times, but at separate pages. Just for clarity's sake, I cited pages 10-11, 15, and 19. The issue is simple enough for in-text citations, but ...
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1answer
49 views

According to the Chicago manual of style for bibliographies do authors with initials have two stops before the title

According to the Chicago manual of style for bibliographies do authors with initials have two stops before the title? So e.g. Wells, H. G.. The Invisible Man
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61 views

Juxtaposing (more than) two sentences that can include “and” by using “and”

QUESTIONS: Is the comma used in the below sentence necessary? Is it okay to use different forms or parts of speech for juxtaposed elements? I.g. In the below sentence, a noun "development" and ...
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2answers
599 views

Suspended hyphen in“ever-expanding and contracting gulf”?

My hunch is a suspended hyphen is not needed preceding the second word (contracting), but the writer queried this and I'm not sure. (We go by the Chicago Manual of Style but I can't find an example ...
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2answers
640 views

When is it OK to start a sentence with “But”? [duplicate]

Is starting a sentence with a "But" still bad? I know some Harvard graduates who are native English speakers and do this when they write. Is it acceptable now? What are some of the examples where "...
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2answers
846 views

Using the Chicago Manual of Style, do colons go inside or outside quotes?

I have the following sentence: The program identifies particular “targets” and “identifiers:” the “targets” are people who are suspected of committing a crime. Does the colon go inside the quotes ...
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1answer
2k views

Shortest date abbreviation recommended by CMOS

What's the shortest abbreviation for a full date (day, month, and year) recommended by the Chicago Manual of Style? I know CMOS recommends against all-numeral dates, so I'd rather not use those. (I ...
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1answer
425 views

The grammar of user interface (technical writing)

I need to translate the interface of our software into English, but I'm not sure how to deal with grammar. Should some auxiliary verbs, articles be omitted for the sake of brevity like in the ...
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1answer
308 views

Should the introductory sentence of a bulleted list end with a colon or a period?

Which of the two examples below is the right way to punctuate the introductory sentence before a bulleted list where each list item is a complete sentence ending with a period? Example 1 There are a ...
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1answer
2k views

How should the phrase “thank you” be written in the following sentence? [duplicate]

According to prevalent formal writing style rules, Should the phrase be in quotes (as in "thank you" or thank you)? Should T of Thank be capital? Should there be a hyphen? They did not give him a ...
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2answers
66 views

Are there any style guides that dictate the use of “on/at Amazon” (and other web platforms). If so, what are they and what's the reasoning behind it?

I've been doing some really basic copywriting for various books that I've seen on various reading lists and I occasionally refer readers to Amazon. Here's a simple example: You can get a good ...
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598 views

Apostrophe on Proper Nouns that end in -s. “Louis's” vs “Louis’ '’? [duplicate]

Though I see that many have asked the question of whether acronyms that ends with a "s" should be s' or s's, I have puzzled over whether nouns that ends in “s” should end in s's or s'. Many sources ...
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1answer
384 views

Is the expression “bring to light” considered cliché in academic | scientific writing? [closed]

I'd like to know if the expression "bring to light" used to mean to discover or reveal (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/bring--to--light) is considered cliché - or even tacky - in scientific writing? ...
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491 views

Footnoting superscript with a colon preceding a block quote - Australian Style Manual

So the Australian Style manual specifies that superscript is placed within punctuation except for at the end of a sentence, where it falls outside of the full stop. All well and good, but how about in ...
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2answers
4k views

French fries or french fries? [duplicate]

Yesterday I came across the following sentence, using "french" fries in lowercase, in an exercise book for non-native speakers of English: We ordered two "french" fries and two apple pies. So I have ...
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2answers
2k views

Pronunciation guide for foreign words: Single or double quotation marks?

Is the use of single quotation marks below standard style in American English? The Japanese word “Nagasaki” is pronounced as ‘na+ga+sa+ki’ Double quotation marks would seem more natural to me, ...
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1answer
189 views

Following the Chicago style guide, would I capitalise 'professor' in the phrase “He became a professor”? [closed]

I'm struggling a little with knowing when to capitalise words under the Chicago Manual of Style. In the phrase "He became a professor", would I capitalise the word 'professor'? My thinking is that ...
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1answer
818 views

Meaning of the “but” in the sentence [closed]

I'm trying to help my student to translate one of the manuals which she needs for work. There is a sentence that I don't understand completely:"For example, you might want to track the license number ...
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2answers
6k views

Which way to write 7th or seventh, 19th or nineteenth, 27th or twenty-seventh, 127, etc [closed]

I type reports for the federal government. I need to know what to do about writing numbers such as 7th or seventh, 19th or nineteenth, 27th or twenty-seventh, 190th or one hundred twenty-seventh or ...
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2answers
11k views

Capitalization in military writing

The editor for a book I'm writing tells me that Delta Company should be written Delta company within the text of the story. Examples: (1) "The only thing the old man told me was get on that helicopter ...
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1answer
1k views

Italicize Translated Title in Parentheses?

I'm proofreading a book and came across the title of a poem with the translation in parentheses (name changed for confidentiality): "... in his poem, Les Amours des Dieux (The Loves of the Gods), .....
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2answers
9k views

Style clarification for date superscripts, th, st and nd

I wanted to know, while writing dates such as 1st April or 2nd March; do we need to superscript the st and the nd as 1st April and 2nd March, or is it ok to write them without the superscript ...
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2answers
248 views

What are Fowler's guidelines for comma usage for this phrase?

I don't need to set off "at times" in commas here, do I? "It is an at times fraught debate... " The alternative is as follows: "It is an, at times, fraught debate... " And, a second question, ...
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1answer
154 views

What is the stylistic form to use for including foreign text in an English article?

Academic texts often include translations of terms, and these are included in parentheses. Is there a standard to use when including foreign language text (e.g. Arabic, Russian, Chinese, etc.)? Let'...
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1answer
167 views

Manuals of Style and Typography for British and American English [closed]

I would like to know which manuals of style and typography are the most common ones for British and American English. I am interested in the basic manuals and the manuals for technical scientists (...
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3answers
789 views

Do any style guides advocate the alternating use of “he” and “she” as a gender-neutral pronoun?

I don't like the options that are usually given in the "gender-neutral pronoun" debate. The singular they offends my prescriptivist sensibilities. His/her constructions are clunky and look terrible. ...
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3answers
4k views

Civil War/antebellum terms in Chicago style

In Chicago style, should the term "union" be capitalized when referring to the pre-Civil War nation? What about the terms "northern" and "southern" as adjectives? I can find clear-cut references for ...
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3answers
271 views

Do any style guides recommend an apostrophe at the end for double possessors? (John and Jacks' house)

I am aware that the universally accepted style is to put an apostrophe-s at the end of the second possessor's name. Example: Amy and Steve's car My question is not whether that is the common rule; ...
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2answers
147 views

Capitalisation of W in 'How to send money: Watch the video'

Should "W" of watch be capitalized as it is starting after a colon?
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2answers
1k views

What is the correct way to format a title within a title/headline/header?

The Chicago Manual of Style and the AP Stylebook generally disagree about how to format book/movie/album titles in a paragraph of text: Chicago: The person is reading The Grapes of Wrath today. AP: ...
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1answer
778 views

Chicago Manual of Style: Citations for photos downloaded from Flickr

I have "Photo Credits" section in my book containing a list of all image citations in the Chicago style, much like a bibliography. CMOS (Chicago manual of Style) 16th edition doesn't say anything ...
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1answer
422 views

Essay Formatting Question: Use of examples [closed]

Good day everyone; I hope I have signed up to the right forum because I am conflicted on a formatting issue. As of now, I am writing an essay for one of my classes in the APA format. Just for ...
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2answers
903 views

Whats wrong in using the words Whilst and Due to?

I remember reading in an English style guide (The Scott Foresman Handbook for Writers) that the words whilst and due to were quite redundant and not to be used. The author did not seem to like them as ...