Questions tagged [hyphenation]

A hyphen is a symbol used to join two words or two syllables of a single word together. It is not to be confused with dashes or the minus symbol, as these are all longer than the hyphen and serve different purposes in language.

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Indegree or in-degree

I've been reading network science books and I've been puzzled by use of in-degree and indegree. It seems both are used but are they both correct? In graph theory I have seen mainly indegree but in ...
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How to know when to add a hyphen between two words in British English? [closed]

I am not sure when to include a hyphen between two words in British English. Here are some examples of words I struggle with: Trade-openness Trade-intensity Intra-EU trade Low- and high-skilled Cross-...
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Is it fine to use Tier-1 instead of Tier 1?

I am trying to make a structure of tiers that will be used a lot. Is it fine to hyphenate the word as Tier-1 instead of Tier 1?
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Hyphenating large numbers in compound adjectives [duplicate]

For situations in which you need to spell out large numbers in a compound... Which of the four options would you say is correct? example 1 a five-hundred-page book a five-hundred page book a five ...
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Under the Chicago Manual of Style, does "year over year" need hyphenation when preceding a noun?

In the sentence, The company experienced strong year[-]over[-]year growth., how does the Chicago Manual of Style govern the hyphenation? Part of me believes that it falls under the "phrases, ...
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Hyphenation of "connected-component labeling"

This wikipedia page refers to connected-component labeling and it places a hyphen between connected and component, but I think there should not be a hyphen there. I've consulted Canada's hyphenation ...
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Hyphenating a compound word that is space separated [duplicate]

I have the two concept antibody and metal ion and I would like to pair them with conjugated. In the first case I would use antibody-conjugated. What's the correct typesetting in the second case? Is it ...
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How can I introduce an acronym parenthetically in a hyphenated compound? [duplicate]

How do I introduce the acronym for "deep learning" in the following case: "Deep learning-based" Example: Deep learning (DL)-based or Deep learning-based (DL-based)
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Should a hyphen be used in this sentence?

Should there be a hyphen in this use of "held out hands"? The held out hands of God are benevolent and generous hands that pour out blessing, favor, and provisions on His people.
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Long-term or Long Term? [duplicate]

I'm creating signage for "Long-term Ventilation Unit" and am keeping it as how I just wrote it. But when Googling, I became slightly confused on whether it is "Long Term Ventilation ...
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Hyphenating Noun/Adj + Noun Compounds Before Nouns

I want to make sure I'm not hyphenating more than I should. Going by Chicago, adjective + noun compounds and noun + noun compounds need to be hyphenated when preceding a noun (but not after a noun). ...
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Is Hyphen a must with compound adjectives? [duplicate]

I have following sentence on a product packaging as a tagline. Easy to use kitchen tools to simplify your workload. I've asked a few native speakers and they said, that "Easy to use" would ...
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What is the justification for using a hyphen with the superlative most in: the most-cited statistical papers

The term "the 100 most-cited statistical papers" is used to define "citation classics." I thought my foreign-speaking client was using the hyphen incorrectly, but this is how it is ...
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What kind of construction is "much-feared" or "oft-quoted"? [duplicate]

When I'm checking a dictionary this kind of usage is not documented. It seems that "much" and "oft" are used adverbially here to amplify the meaning of an adjective and the whole ...
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What is the correct use of dashes in complex phrasal adjectives in British English used in scientific writing?

Are dashes used correctly according to British English rules in the phrases below that appear in published peer-reviewed scientific journals and related articles? If not, why not and what is the ...
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Why is the syllable division for glorious "glo-ri-ous" rather than "glor-i-ous"? [closed]

https://www.howmanysyllables.com/syllables/glorious Divide glorious into syllables: glo-ri-ous Why is it glo-ri-ous and not glor-i-ous? And shouldn't "glo" be pronounced as glow? Which ...
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a thirty-billion-dollar swindle or a thirty-billion dollar swindle? [duplicate]

Is it hyphenated as 'a thirty-billion-dollar swindle' or 'a thirty-billion dollar swindle' ?
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Is it a "Spanish-language movie" or a "Spanish language movie"?

As I understand it (please correct me if I'm wrong): "Spanish" is a proper noun and therefore must be capitalized; "Spanish-language" in this case is a compound adjective and those ...
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Like BrE's apparently idiosyncratic "drink-driving", does English have any other hyphenated constructions of the form "noun-verb"? [closed]

As in title. I can think of many hyphenated constructions of other forms, such as noun-adjective (e.g. nut-safe, child-friendly, community-driven) adjective-verb (e.g. low-flying), adverb-verb (e.g. ...
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Hyphenation of well-known compound nouns used adjectivally [duplicate]

Which is correct: high society networking, or, high-society networking? Chicago Manual of Style gives a middle-class neighborhood/the neighborhood is middle class as an example of a generic rule that ...
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Should I capitalize the second element in a hyphenated word if the first is a number? [closed]

I am adding a contest I attended to my CV. The official name (translated into English from another language) is '3-minute Physics' popular science competition. However, if I want to make my CV read ...
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Hyphenation of compound modifiers that have written-out numeric ranges in them

Is either of these approaches to hyphenation currently more popular than the other one is when it comes to printed publications? The drug is most promising for three-to-fifteen-year-old children. The ...
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How to add a range in an hyphenated adjective? e.g. "a 3–5-month-old baby"?

I know "a 5-month-old baby" is the correct way to hyphenate things, but what if I have to add a en-dash range? "A 3–5-month-old baby" would logically be the correct solution, but ...
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Using a hyphen with in conjunction with an 'and/or' phrase [duplicate]

I came across a weird phrase when I was proofreading something and I am not sure how to handle it and I cannot come up with a good search term to find any info on Google either. Then sentence goes ...
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Two hyphens or one?

Should I leave out the first hyphen? Which one is correct -- "reading-comprehension-based testing" or "reading comprehension-based testing"?
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"Flood damage-resistant materials" or "Flood-damage-resistant materials"?

I work at a publishing company that generally follows Chicago Manual. I thought "flood damage-resistant materials" is the proper way to hyphenate, but another employee thinks an additional ...
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Is "adj. + infinitive + be" a thing? Or am I understanding the hyphen wrong?

I came across this sentence during my GRE prep. I had a hard time understanding the grammar structure of it. It seems to me that the will be in the middle is referring to Crucial to fostering in the ...
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Are multiple hyphenations allowed in extending compound words like "well-controlled"? [duplicate]

It is common to write the phrase "well controlled" as a single, hyphenated adjective, "well-controlled". If my intention is to place additional adverbs in front of the hyphenated ...
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Is it a "14-karat gold ring" or a "14-karat-gold ring"? [closed]

I cannot find an answer to this anywhere, neither on the internet nor in any jeweler brochures. Is it: a 14-karat-gold ring OR: a 14-karat gold ring Does "14-karat" modify "gold ...
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How to hyphenate "corned beef filled"? [closed]

"Tuna-filled" is hyphenated correctly, right? If we were to fill something with "corned beef", how would we write "corned beef filled"? Where would the hyphen go?
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Hyphen and en dash usage in adjectives such as "human–animal"

I noticed a possible editorial error in Nature magazine concerning this. These two headlines here and here use en dashes and hyphens for the adjectives "human–animal" and "human-animal&...
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What is the effect of using dashes between each word in a sentence?

In The Bluest Eye, there is a quote: Grown people frowned and fussed: 'You-don’t-know- how-to-take-care-of-nothing. I-never-had-a-baby-doll-in-my-whole-life-and-used-to-cry-my-eyes-out-for-them. Now-...
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Hyphens and pronoun: Markov chain model vs Markov-chain model [duplicate]

Trying to figure out hyphen rules, and they mostly seem easy to follow. However, the main thing throwing me off is whether or not to hyphenate two words preceding a noun when one of the words is a ...
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Does a noun phrase used as an adjective require a hyphen? [duplicate]

I've got this phrase: On a crisp, hot-chocolate afternoon. I'm not sure if hot chocolate requires a hyphen. It would add clarity (a hot-chocolate afternoon, as opposed to a hot and chocolate afternoon)...
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N-times differentiable function should go with hyphen? [duplicate]

Suppose that I would like to say "Let f(x) be an N-times differentiable function." Should it be "N-times" or "N times", and why?
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Pre-construction and post construction [duplicate]

I have been struggling for a definitive answer about the use of a hyphen specifically in pre-construction and post construction. We sometimes write preconstruction and sometimes pre-construction. ...
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A four- or five-time(s)-a-year indulgence

Page 693 of Garner's Modern English reads When two phrasal adjectives have a common element at the end, and this ending portion appears only with the second phrase, insert a suspensive hyphen after ...
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Is the hyphen in the adjective phrase “just-[past participle]” mandatory?

I came across the following sentence: The target can be resolved through one of the just mentioned record types. I believe it should have been written as “… just-mentioned record types”, with a ...
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Hyphenation of compound or phrasal adjectives

The following usage of hyphenation all seems correct to me, but I wanted verification that this is correct, since use of hyphenation in compound adjectives doesn't seem to commonly follow this pattern....
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What would be the correct spelling/hyphenation for "upper mid-tier"?

The phrase is for referring to a noun "company" such as in the sentence: "I bought the upper mid-tier company". (Meaning a company that is middle tier but slightly higher and not ...
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"quantum mechanical" vs "quantum-mechanical" [duplicate]

I'm currently writing a short report, where one (sub-)chapter heading reads: The quantum(-)mechanical basics I am now wondering, whether it is preferable with or without the hyphen. When googling ...
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Should I use hyphenation on compounds consisting of three nouns?

In our software, we extract/detect information from/on images, e.g., face features and hand gestures. When referring to these processes, should it be...? "face feature extraction" and "...
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Should I hyphenate "rational expectations" when used as an adjective? [closed]

Should a hyphen be used between "rational" and "expectations" in phrases like "rational expectations equilibrium" or "rational expectations condition" in an ...
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Do these phrases require hyphens? "mock-cried" vs "mock cried" [duplicate]

Should the following sentences be hyphenated? I mock cried into his shoulder. vs. I mock-cried into his shoulder. He smiled at me with his old man charm. vs. He smiled at me with his old man-charm.
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Why is there not a hyphen between "natural" and "language" in the phrase "natural language processing"?

Natural language processing is a field of AI that deals with tasks related to processing natural languages such as English and Spanish, in order to understand and extract data from them. Based on my ...
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Hyphenated Word Split Between Pages?

I am currently proofreading a typeset document that's automatically hyphenated "client" to justify a line. The bottom of one page has "cli-", and then, after a page turn, "-...
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I need to use two compound words in a sentence and their first component is the same. Do I start the second word with a hyphen? [duplicate]

I need to write the following sentence in a description of a book's binding: "Printer's wrappers, housed in a cloth-backed and cloth-edged card slipcase." This seems clunky to me, and I ...
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Prefixes hyphenated or spaced

As a professional typographer and proofreader (I know; rare and disappearing breeds, especially for being both at the same time! And yes, I’m also a graphic designer), I tend to follow what are called ...
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Regarding usage of hyphens for numbers with preposition

Here are few examples of hyphen usage I found (albeit on internet) for numbers with preposition in between. At the same time I find these without hyphens in similar usage. #-for-# [Barry] "...
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'Extra-high-voltage grid' or 'extra-high voltage grid'?

I've seen both used interchangeably, and can't decide which is best. Given that both adjectives modify the noun, should two hyphens not be used? Thanks!
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