Questions tagged [citation]

How to cite things in English.

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27
votes
3answers
150k views

Abbreviation “n.d.” in citation?

I’ve just come across “n.d.” used as an abbreviation, as a bibliographic reference in an academic essay, along the lines of: Smith (n.d.) discusses the subaquaeous pliability of rattan fibres… Is ...
15
votes
2answers
20k views

When citing a French citation in the original, should the guillemets (angle quotes) be changed? What about punctuation order?

I’ve come across a puzzling punctuation problem! I’m working on a document in US English. It includes a citation of a French text in the original French, and this citation includes a citation (all in ...
14
votes
2answers
10k views

Whence “emphasis mine”?

Writers often highlight part of a quotation to emphasize the point they're making. They use a variety of phrases to indicate that the emphasis did not appear in the original text. In order of current ...
13
votes
3answers
227k views

If I quote only the middle part of a sentence, do I use ellipses?

For example, if Peter is my source, should I say: Peter mentioned his '... unquenchable thirst, a fatigued body...' as being part of the reason for his actions. Or would I have to leave out the ...
13
votes
3answers
16k views

Is the Latin abbreviation “f” (folio) commonly used in page ranges?

When citing from an inclusive range of two consecutive pages such as pages 25 and 26, one can write 25–26 or 25f I know this is a question of style, but I am having little luck with Google on ...
10
votes
1answer
978 views

How to cite an author who spells his name inconsistently

I am writing a paper where I will cite several works by the Hungarian mathematician Gábor Szegő. Note that his surname includes the letter o with a double acute accent, NOT a letter o with umlaut ö. ...
7
votes
3answers
14k views

Is “et al.” acceptable for citations with exactly two authors?

I have a bunch of information from a source, but the authors names are particularly long; is it acceptable (in MLA) to use "et al." for exactly two authors, e.g., “The Corpus juris not only ...
6
votes
4answers
517 views

Can anyone authenticate the claim that “grungy” was used to mean “envious or jealous” in 1920s slang?

A recent question on EL&U asks "Where did the 1920s slang word "grungy" (meaning "envious") originate, if the modern word "grungy" (meaning "dingy") doesn&#...
6
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2answers
1k views

Plagiarism: How to cite the citation of your source? [closed]

I am being prosecuted by my school for plagiarism. However, I had no idea I was plagiarizing. They claim I incorrectly cited my source. But I beg to differ. Generally, how does one cite a source's ...
5
votes
5answers
6k views

Is there a symbol out there capable of denoting a chapter in a citation?

When citing like [Source, ch.number], is there a particular symbol that could or should replace the "ch." abbreviation?
5
votes
1answer
10k views

What is the correct way to format an author's name in an APA citation when only a username is known? [closed]

I am trying to cite the image at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shoe-parts-en.svg. However, how would I cite the autors/contributors, since I don't know their actual name. Do I just cite their ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

Is there such a thing as a sentence sign?

Many of us are familiar with the section sign (§) and the paragraph sign or pilcrow (¶), but is there a sign, symbol, or mark meant to denote a sentence? Potentially, such a mark could be used for ...
4
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2answers
4k views

How to cite an author who does not capltalize her name if you are beginning a sentence with her name

If you are writing a paper and citing works by an author/researcher who does not capitalize her name, how do you begin a sentence using the author's name?
3
votes
3answers
14k views

Citing a Shakespearean Play: What Constitutes a “Line”?

According to many sources that I've searched, it seems that the in-line citations for dramatic works, such as Shakeaspearean plays, are cited in the following form: act.scene.line(s). So for example, ...
3
votes
1answer
976 views

How do I cite a Stack Exchange answer in MLA? [closed]

I'd like to cite an answer to a Stack Exchange question in an MLA-format paper. What's the correct way to do this? Should I cite the specific answer I'm using, or the question page as a whole, and if ...
3
votes
3answers
10k views

Should I capitalize a person's last name if their name starts with a lower case letter but it's the first word in the sentence? [duplicate]

I'm trying to cite someone in a paper I'm writing whose name is "[First-name] de Soya". In my field it's common to cite papers using the "et al." style ("In their seminal paper, de Soya et al. […] ...
3
votes
1answer
525 views

Footnote and citation at the end of a sentence

According to this, footnote marks should come at the end of the sentence, after the punctuation, like The inner flow is then reflected at this boundary, leading to an oblique expansion shock (also ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

“sic” with “explicitly” (and other adverbs)

I was reading a Wikipedia article on Fermat's principle that quoted some older English text, and one bit confused me: The principle of Fermat, although it was assumed by that mathematician on ...
3
votes
2answers
87 views

If I have a quotation that, within itself, quotes another source, how do I write an in-text citation for the nested quote?

While writing a literary criticism essay on Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment, I cited another critique that quoted the novel itself. Within the outline I submitted to the teacher, the entire quote ...
3
votes
3answers
485 views

What is the name for right-aligning a citation on the last line of a paragraph?

Is there a term for when you layout a paragraph with a right-aligned citation on the last line, like this: Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Phasellus quam mauris, tincidunt ...
2
votes
2answers
240 views

Citing publications with stylized titles

In a situation where the title of a work is stylized, e.g. "Choose the Red Pill and the Blue Pill", should this title be fully italicized as Choose the Red Pill and the Blue Pill when cited? It ...
2
votes
1answer
11k views

Use of “courtesy of…” when citing?

There are a number of systems for citing various materials (MLA, APA, etc.). These vary by discipline, country, journal, level of formality, and so on. Obviously one should know which system should be ...
2
votes
2answers
15k views

Proper way to cite Wikipedia according to the Chicago Manual of Style?

In The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed., it actually lists two ways to cite Wikipedia content. The first, in section 14.245, is of the form: "Style Guide," Wikipedia, last modified July 18, 2008, ...
2
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2answers
4k views

How should I shorten a very wordy title? [closed]

I want to mention a very long title which doesn't have a good shortening using one continuous chunk: An account of a method of dividing astronomical and other instruments, by ocular inspection; in ...
2
votes
1answer
125 views

Inline citation for source refrenced a second time [closed]

I'm using IEEE citation style. If information is cited from one source, then another, then again from the first how does the inline citation work? Take the following made up example: Dogs make ...
2
votes
1answer
519 views

Citing a name with punctuation at the end

I'm using IEEE citation and the title of the work I am trying to cite has punctuation at the end. I'm unsure how to proceed because part of the citation includes putting a period at the end of the ...
2
votes
1answer
141 views

Citations in Chicago Style For Direct Quote and Subsequent Paragraph - Two Citations and “Ibid.,” or One?

I apologize for the political nature of this quote, but this is what I'm working on. I am using the Chicago Manual of Style. I am wondering if, when quoting a comment in a medium-length section that ...
2
votes
1answer
199 views

What is the most common word for indicating a source of the citation? (e.g. Source:/Reference:/From:) [closed]

For example, The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. From: Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun What is the bestmost common word for the above bold part? From, Reference,...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

How to cite when describing a protocol?

I am writing a paper that involves the description of numerous internet protocols. Because of the rigidity of these protocols, it's difficult for any one description to sound much different from any ...
2
votes
0answers
263 views

How do I cite a line of poetry that is repeated throughout the poem? Should I just cite the first time it occurs?

The line is repeated several times throughout the poem
2
votes
0answers
131 views

Correct way to reference sub bullet list [closed]

d. Include documentation of rating ______ i. Show rating of ______ ii. Include overall ______ 1. Provide relevant documentation ______ In the example above, how would the last 3 ...
2
votes
1answer
162 views

How do I cite a page in my own book?

Every so often I want to ask the reader to look back at a page in the current book they have in their hands (my Ph. D. thesis). If I write something like Critically, breaking a mathematical task ...
1
vote
2answers
418 views

What does an italic “a” immediately before a year stand for?

Some citations in the OED have an italic a before the year to indicate the year is uncertain, for example: a​1556 N. Udall Ralph Roister Doister (?1566) iii. iv. sig. E.iijv, By gosse and for ...
1
vote
1answer
420 views

Can I use “linkography” instead of “bibliography” when referring to web links?

I’m writing a piece of documentation and I want to add the links I'm referring to at the bottom of my document. Since they are links and not books, I think the section title should not use the word ...
1
vote
2answers
5k views

Cite a Powerpoint Presentation [closed]

I'm writing my Junior paper and found several powerpoint presentations online. Now, I'm working on the bibliography and my English teacher doesn't know how to cite them and every site I've visited has ...
1
vote
1answer
522 views

Is there a “see also” parenthetical citation abbreviation?

I am citing a verse from the Bible and attempting to refer to similar-meaning verses in the same parenthetical citation. An example is as follows: “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

In legal citations, why are “see”, “see also”, etc., in italics?

In legal citations, why do people put "see", "see also", "e.g.", etc., in italics? Please don't just say, "because that's the custom." I'd like to know just ...
1
vote
2answers
78 views

Citation of internet webpages that have limited lifetimes [closed]

Some websites, especially news websites, either leave up content for limited periods, or archive content after a few days and charge readers to access their archives. It seems to me that citations in ...
1
vote
2answers
2k views

How to cite a court case?

I am unsure on how to cite a court case. The one I am trying to cite is Riley v. California. The information I can plainly see is Court of Appeal, Fourth Appellate District Division One State ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Citations: How to deal with error in the original text caused by repeated word or misspelling?

I'm reading an article I could potentially use for my thesis, but I've come across several errors already. I'm curious on how to do it if I really had to use the words from the original text. I ...
1
vote
1answer
665 views

apa style - citing nobility

I want to cite a written work by a European (specifically, English) nobelwoman, more specifically, a countess. However, in order to make my question a bit general and to provide a comparison case, ...
1
vote
2answers
916 views

What is the correct way to quote (and cite) computer code using the Chicago style?

I would like to quote from line 205 to 214 of a particular source code.
1
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2answers
304 views

Commas with quotes [duplicate]

I read the following sentence1: He rallied the Senate with the plea, “It’s time to change the Senate before this institution becomes obsolete.” I’m wondering whether a comma should be placed after ...
1
vote
1answer
20k views

How should an author cite a page and line number range that spans across multiple pages?

Authors are occasionally required to cite to a reference by page and line number. For example, many adjudicatory boards require briefs to cite to references by paragraph number, if possible, and ...
1
vote
2answers
585 views

When I am quoting something does it need to be incorporated into my own sentence? (Also, should I use an ellipsis?)

I am writing an essay for my English class. At one point I make a statement about the book and end the sentence. Afterwards I've inserted a direct quote from the book on its own. Here's an example: ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

What is the proper way to cross-reference a section within the same document?

I'm updating a user manual which references other sections within the same document. Currently the cross references look like this: Lorem ipsum blah blah (see "Formigulating the whatzit"). ...
1
vote
1answer
972 views

Chicago Manual of Style: Citations for photos downloaded from Flickr

I have "Photo Credits" section in my book containing a list of all image citations in the Chicago style, much like a bibliography. CMOS (Chicago manual of Style) 16th edition doesn't say anything ...
1
vote
1answer
234 views

Comma position with citation [closed]

This question regards Vancouver referencing, though I suppose the issue could really arise regardless of what is contained in the in-text citation. Consider the sentence: As dogs are mammals they ...
1
vote
1answer
7k views

How to Cite a Supreme Court Syllabus in Chicago Style?

I'm trying to cite the syllabus of a Supreme Court case in Chicago Style (Notes and Bib). Help?
1
vote
1answer
774 views

How to cite a poem, with a quote that is on multiple non-contiguous lines?

I have to cite a quote from a poem that is on multiple lines that are not next to eachother. How would I do this? "This is my quote" (line1 - line 2) OR "This is my quote" (line1 .. line2) ?