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Questions tagged [citation]

How to cite things in English.

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Question about a citation (MLA 8th)

first timer here! I have a citation placement question. Here's the passage as it's written - is this the correct usage of the in-text citation? Unwittingly, they have received what Jungian ...
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1answer
32 views

Citing Multiple paragraphs MLA

Had a quick question about how I should cite with multiple paragraphs (MLA). Here is how the text appears in the source (The Great Gatsby): 'An Oxford man!' He was incredulous. 'Like hell he is!...
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1answer
38 views

Is there a “see also” parenthetical citation abbreviation?

I am citing a verse from the Bible and attempting to refer to similar-meaning verses in the same parenthetical citation. An example is as follows: “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the ...
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1answer
56 views

Footnote and citation at the end of a sentence

According to this, footnote marks should come at the end of the sentence, after the punctuation, like The inner flow is then reflected at this boundary, leading to an oblique expansion shock (also ...
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1answer
19 views

Abbreviations in Citations

If you are abbreviating a word in a document, and that same word shows up in a citation that is NOT a quote, should/can you abbreviate it? My thought is yes. Does it matter if it is a quote?
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1answer
31 views

APA Citation Quote + End of Sentence

How do we correctly (APA style) end a sentence that ends in a quote and requires a citation? The manual explains it as, "a method for doing something (author, year)." or The manual explains it ...
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1answer
33 views

Quotation and Citation

I have a sentence directly copied from a source to a paper. This sentence is cited but not quoted. In this point, it is regarded as plagiarism. Can we say plagiarism for the opposite case: Directly ...
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1answer
20 views

Citations and Commas

How do you write #1? Does #2 need a comma before the word, while or no comma at all? "How is it? Do you like it? she would ask. And that is how we would carry on with our mother/daughter dinners each ...
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25 views

Using 'Ibid' within footnoting A Level

I am currently completing my final piece of A Level coursework for English Literature. I have cited a quote, and then the second quote is from a different place. Wrote out all the relevant details ...
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32 views

Correct way to reference sub bullet list [closed]

d. Include documentation of rating ______ i. Show rating of ______ ii. Include overall ______ 1. Provide relevant documentation ______ In the example above, how would the last 3 ...
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2answers
36 views

Sorting and citation of names like “Heather Mac Donald”

English and citation issue: A person, woman, Heather Mac Donald, the Mac part of the family name, right? Is it being used in sorting or would the person be sorted under Donald? In sense of CSL 1.0.1 ...
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2answers
19 views

If I use a quote followed by a citation, then a small sentence from the cited material, should I include another citation?

I understand you should always follow a quotation with a citation in academic writing, but how close together can two of the same citations be? Here is the sentence in question: “BitTorrent traffic ...
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1answer
38 views

Citations: How to deal with error in the original text caused by repeated word or misspelling?

I'm reading an article I could potentially use for my thesis, but I've come across several errors already. I'm curious on how to do it if I really had to use the words from the original text. I ...
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1answer
92 views

Citations in Chicago Style For Direct Quote and Subsequent Paragraph - Two Citations and “Ibid.,” or One?

I apologize for the political nature of this quote, but this is what I'm working on. I am using the Chicago Manual of Style. I am wondering if, when quoting a comment in a medium-length section that ...
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2answers
95 views

Do I italicize or quote the title of a PDF for a citation?

There're literally thousands of conflicting APA styles on the internet, even different universities with different professors using different standards. It's a truly atrocious system that does nothing ...
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1answer
30 views

Abbreviations inside in-text citations

I'm using an in-text citation in my paper which is as follows: Our case studies demonstrate that NGET have already provided a wide range of environmental, security, health and safety, and ...
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2answers
50 views

Punctuation in a sentence including a quotation and the citation of it

In the following sentence, am I right in thinking that there should be a comma after "that" and a capital "I" in "if"? And then I'm completely foxed as to where the full stop should go in relation to ...
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3answers
88 views

How does one cite a source that one knows only indirectly?

I used a quote in my essay that I got from the rubric for the assignment. How do I cite it? I know it's like citing a handout but who’s the author, the teacher or the person who said the quote (...
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2answers
122 views

How to cite critic reviews in-text but as standalone?

Let me explain after trying to Google, I cannot find information on how to quote a review/testimonial from a critic at a publication outside of the main text. The testimonial/reviews are listed at the ...
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25 views

How do I write (not cite) Bible verses in MLA format?

For in-text MLA citations of the Bible, everything I've seen says to write the following: Saint John tells us that "God so loved the world that he sent his only-begotten Son" (Revised Standard ...
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29 views

Text between citations in parentheses

I have text between citations in parentheses and I'm not sure how to deal with this. I am willing to accept any style guide. Here's what I have: (see, e.g., Smith et al., 2001 and Johnson et al., ...
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21 views

Chicago Notes and the 'I'

Can I use 'I' in Chicago Notes style if I am not writing about an opinion? So if I use it analytically, "I summarize" or "Therefore, I see the connection between x and y as this". Also; Can I say '...
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2answers
939 views

How should I shorten a very wordy title? [closed]

I want to mention a very long title which doesn't have a good shortening using one continuous chunk: An account of a method of dividing astronomical and other instruments, by ocular inspection; in ...
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1answer
340 views

How do I quote multiple paragraphs? [closed]

I'm writing a rhetorical analysis paper on Grendel and I'm quoting the following: The monster laughs. Time-space cross-section: Wealtheow. Cut A: Do I block quote? I think the paragraph ...
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0answers
30 views

How to cite reset page numbers?

I'm trying to cite a "P.S." section of a book, Green Grass Running Water by Thomas King, but the page numbers just start again from 1 at the start of the P.S. section (i.e. the next page after 430 is ...
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104 views

When citing, is omitted reference replaced by ellipsis?

Let's say I want to quote this sentence from a text I refer to as "Smith (2016)": Research has shown that dogs can't fly (Watson 2015), but they can bark. but I don't want to quote Smith's ...
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0answers
70 views

Cite numbered paragraph of a section [closed]

I know that the pilcrow ¶ must be used to cite a paragraph from a (standard/legal/normative) document organized in numbered paragraphs, and the section sign § when organized by numbered sections. I'm ...
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1answer
29 views

Can I make minor typographical corrections to a title in citations? [closed]

Let's say I need to cite a website or printed report with the title: Broccoli production in Ruritania, 1990-2010 with a hyphen in "1990-2010." In English typography, though, the standard indicator ...
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1answer
734 views

Indicate my translation in in-text citation [closed]

I hope I'm not repeating this question although I could not find something relevant on this website. I am looking for a way to indicate that a passage from a book is my translation. I'm using in-text ...
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0answers
57 views

Citation of Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) in academic writing

I am referring to companies in a certain SIC classification and I am not sure if it's necessary to add a proper citation, when first mentioning the SIC classification, to the "Occupational Safety &...
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1answer
49 views

Proper citation style online [closed]

What is the the/a proper citation style when I'm citing something online? The reason I ask is because some styles use underlining, but underlining online should only be used for links. To be clear - ...
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2answers
1k views

In legal citations, why are “see”, “see also”, etc., in italics?

In legal citations, why do people put "see", "see also", "e.g.", etc., in italics? Please don't just say, "because that's the custom." I'd like to know just enough about the evolution of this custom ...
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1answer
39 views

References in a thesis

What does the lowercase letter after the year mean when citing a work in a thesis? When should I add a lowercase letter to a cited author? What are the criteria for using it? Example: Johnson (2000a)
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1answer
302 views

apa style - citing nobility

I want to cite a written work by a European (specifically, English) nobelwoman, more specifically, a countess. However, in order to make my question a bit general and to provide a comparison case, ...
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1answer
283 views

How to format a parenthetical citation in a parenthetical phrase?

Specifically, in APA style. I'm talking about this, for example: ...where there has been a long history (artefacts have been found (Smith, 2006)) of such matters... Is it okay to have double ...
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2answers
4k views

Use of “ante” to refer to previous pages in an English text

At work I have seen "ante" being used for referring to previous pages of notes written by staff. For instance, when one has to refer to something on previous note, he/she would write, "Refer ...
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3answers
366 views

Proper punctuation for compound sentence with quote that is a question

How should this be properly punctuated? What is the purpose of human existence, or is it meaningless is the question asked by Juan Valdez in "What do coffee pickers with burros think about all day (...
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2answers
401 views

When I am quoting something does it need to be incorporated into my own sentence? (Also, should I use an ellipsis?)

I am writing an essay for my English class. At one point I make a statement about the book and end the sentence. Afterwards I've inserted a direct quote from the book on its own. Here's an example: ...
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3answers
7k views

Citing a Shakespearean Play: What Constitutes a “Line”?

According to many sources that I've searched, it seems that the in-line citations for dramatic works, such as Shakeaspearean plays, are cited in the following form: act.scene.line(s). So for example, ...
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1answer
5k views

Use of “courtesy of…” when citing?

There are a number of systems for citing various materials (MLA, APA, etc.). These vary by discipline, country, journal, level of formality, and so on. Obviously one should know which system should be ...
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1answer
1k views

Is there such a thing as a sentence sign?

Many of us are familiar with the section sign (§) and the paragraph sign or pilcrow (¶), but is there a sign, symbol, or mark meant to denote a sentence? Potentially, such a mark could be used for ...
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1answer
106 views

Summarizing a paper to give a different meaning

A recent news article published an article based on certain research. They included the link to the research. However, both the title of the article, and the conclusions it drew, ran contrary to the ...
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6answers
2k views

Term for putting someone else's name on one's work?

This is the "Later Letters of Paul" effect, also seen in historic Chinese philosophical writings. One uses the name of a famous or canonical figure to lend credence or divine attribution to one's own ...
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1answer
15k views

Do page/author in-text citations go at end of quote or end of sentence? [closed]

I was just arguing with my sister about the placement of a citation after a quote if the quote was not at the end of a sentence. I thought it would be like so: According to me,"the citations go ...
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2answers
797 views

With a direct quote—placement of a comma separating dependent and independent clauses: inside the close quotation mark or after the citation? [closed]

I have been looking for the answer to this for some time. I get close, but never find the exact answer (or question for that matter). In the following sentence, should the comma fall after "...
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1answer
878 views

What is the proper way to cross-reference a section within the same document?

I'm updating a user manual which references other sections within the same document. Currently the cross references look like this: Lorem ipsum blah blah (see "Formigulating the whatzit"). I want ...
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1answer
648 views

Chicago Manual of Style: Citations for photos downloaded from Flickr

I have "Photo Credits" section in my book containing a list of all image citations in the Chicago style, much like a bibliography. CMOS (Chicago manual of Style) 16th edition doesn't say anything ...
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3answers
5k views

Should I capitalize a person's last name if their name starts with a lower case letter but it's the first word in the sentence? [duplicate]

I'm trying to cite someone in a paper I'm writing whose name is "[First-name] de Soya". In my field it's common to cite papers using the "et al." style ("In their seminal paper, de Soya et al. […] ...
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2answers
2k views

If quoting only an extract of dialogue from a fiction book, do you still need to have quotes within quotes? [closed]

I need to show kids how to write a book review. I am writing a book review as an exemplar to show them how it's done. However, I got stuck when it came to citing extracts of dialogue. My question is ...
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2answers
16k views

When citing a French citation in the original, should the guillemets (angle quotes) be changed? What about punctuation order?

I’ve come across a puzzling punctuation problem! I’m working on a document in US English. It includes a citation of a French text in the original French, and this citation includes a citation (all in ...