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Questions tagged [citation]

For questions about citational conventions, including the attribution of quotes or sources.

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Can "et ali" be proper?

There are some non-published works that I am reading that were written by a professor, so I do not feel I can discount his claims out-of-hand. However, he uses a term I have never read and can find no ...
John's user avatar
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1 answer
61 views

Using brackets / ellipsis in quotes; also, citing poems?

When using a bracketed form of ellipsis, would I also bracket the period at the end of a quote ended early? Ex. "What god drove them to fight with such a fury? / Apollo the son of Zeus and Leto. ...
user500550's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
68 views

How to format an author who only has a title (written by the "office") in a bibliography?

(forgiveness if this is not the correct stackexchange - this one had the most and only relevant hits) I am trying to record https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp1_0.pdf in my ...
Jason Pyeron's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
65 views

Which dash to use in citations while writing "number"? [duplicate]

Consider the following citation: Dasgupta, P. (1992). Pronominality and deixis in Bangla. Linguistic analysis, 22(1–2). This represents 22nd volume of the concerned journal and 1–2 number. I am ...
Niranjan's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
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When should we capitalize the beginning of a quotation?

Basically, I am somewhat confused when a quotation should be capitalized. My understanding is that if a) one quotes the full original sentence and b) this quotation is set off by a colon, semi-colon ...
IbnZubeira's user avatar
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1 answer
210 views

Capitalization after an ellipsis beginning a paragraph midway in a multi-paragraph quotation

If midway in a multi-paragraph quotation, a paragraph begins with one or more prior paragraphs omitted, and the line starts mid-sentence with preceding words omitted, is the line capitalized after the ...
Typothalamus's user avatar
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0 answers
32 views

Mixing symbols and numerical reference marks

In the case of a block quotation from a secondary source that is required to feature any original citations appearing in that material, would the convention of employing a numerical citation reference ...
Typothalamus's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
64 views

Creating system for noting secondary source in block quotation while preserving original source citations. New edition of previously published work

Working with a text that makes extensive use of a secondary source that will be given in block quotation and, of course, cited. The secondary source, however, contained many original source citations ...
Typothalamus's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
98 views

Is “out of sorts” in The Proverbs of John Heywood?

The origin of the popular saying out of sorts is still unclear, but the more common theory states that the expression comes from the world of printing where “sorts” was used to refer to boxes of ...
user 66974's user avatar
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28 views

Citing the same source twice in a row, in a business document

In a business document for work, I'm citing data from a market research paper (Gartner). I cite data from the same source 3 times across 2 paragraphs. Keep in mind this is not an academic paper. Is it ...
SilentSteel's user avatar
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If I simultaneously change and omit part of a quote, should I include ellipsis next to the brackets?

I feel it would be easiest to explain using my specific situation as an example. I am writing an essay in which I plan to include the following quotation from a secondary source: The more she talks, ...
Samantha's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
73 views

Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition (full note). Why comma for first author and not the others [closed]

My citation management software does this automatically and apparently it's what supposed to be done. There is a comma between the last name and the first name of the first author, but no commas ...
FluidMechanics Potential Flows's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
379 views

When citing a publication with more than one author as subject of a sentence, are verbs plural or singular? [closed]

Which is correct in this sentence: "enumerate" or "enumerates"? Jacobs and Watanabe (1966) enumerate(s) possibilities that cause change in phase path length, including change in ...
Iotatron's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
160 views

Em dash to introduce a quote

Is it fine to introduce a direct quote with an em dash? I want to briefly summarise a quote, while still giving it in full. Something like: However, Smith (2021) argued that foo can in fact improve ...
Michal Charemza's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
61 views

Strange usage of quotations in Wikpedia article [closed]

My girlfriend and I were reading a Wikipedia page and were confused as to the usage of quotations in the following Wikipedia article: King Kong Bundy. Specifically, towards the end, the article ...
J N's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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How do I refer to a work rather than the authors with an APA citation? [closed]

The APA Publication manual recognizes two kinds of in-text citations, parenthetical and narrative. They are characterized as follows: In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date (...
Cian's user avatar
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0 answers
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How to quote a list (for a scientific thesis)?

I would like to quote a list verbatim. Let's say this is the list, and it's originally from a book: Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance, ...
Anna_B's user avatar
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0 answers
16 views

How are "[]" and "[...]" used in in-text reference [duplicate]

I've seen direct quotations which use "[]" and "[...]", but so far I've been unable to find a definition for the syntax. Specifically, the text could be like: [S]o here we don't ...
Epsilon Away's user avatar
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0 answers
35 views

Word for "person to ask"

I am making a data sheet with questions and answers. There's also a column for "Answerer" Which is a bit premature as many of these questions don't yet have answers. Not to mention it's a ...
Kanembel's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
79 views

"sic" with "explicitly" (and other adverbs)

I was reading a Wikipedia article on Fermat's principle that quoted some older English text, and one bit confused me: The principle of Fermat, although it was assumed by that mathematician on ...
LogStar100's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
113 views

Why are sub-subsections of the Irish constitution marked with the degree symbol? [closed]

The accepted legal practice when referring to sub-subsections of the Irish constitution is to use the degree symbol to mark sub-subsections. For example, Art 40.3.3°. This convention is not used for ...
constitutionquestion's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
215 views

If I have a quotation that, within itself, quotes another source, how do I write an in-text citation for the nested quote?

While writing a literary criticism essay on Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment, I cited another critique that quoted the novel itself. Within the outline I submitted to the teacher, the entire quote ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
3k views

Usage of "p." vs "pp." to denote two separate pages

I understand that "p." is used for single page references, and "pp." for multipage pages. However, if I'm quoting something from p. 35 and p. 40 from the same book, should I use "p. 35 and p. 40", or "...
Horseface Lucy's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
1k views

How do I cite a line of poetry that is repeated throughout the poem? Should I just cite the first time it occurs?

The line is repeated several times throughout the poem
Mani Cuza's user avatar
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0 answers
31 views

Preserving Alphabetical Order Within a Citation

I am using MLA format to cite a series of articles for a school paper. All citations are listed alphabetically (Flood --> Gould --> Green -->). However, I am wondering whether or not an article with ...
Shady Puck's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
50 views

Is it bad to start a sentence with a citation [duplicate]

e.g. [14,6] give 3 and 2.4-approximations for the FVS problem. Also when do you not use numbers from one to ten as worded. e.g. The earliest algorithms had an approximation factor of 16, later ...
Hao S's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
404 views

APA reference for uppercase word in title of book

I need to complete references for an assignment in APA format, but one of the books has an uppercase word in it and I'm not sure if it should remain uppercase or be changed to lowercase: The SAGE ...
Bassmanjase's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
159 views

Citing Multiple paragraphs MLA

Had a quick question about how I should cite with multiple paragraphs (MLA). Here is how the text appears in the source (The Great Gatsby): 'An Oxford man!' He was incredulous. 'Like hell he is!...
SarahL's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Is there a "see also" parenthetical citation abbreviation?

I am citing a verse from the Bible and attempting to refer to similar-meaning verses in the same parenthetical citation. An example is as follows: “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the ...
Zach Saucier's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

Footnote and citation at the end of a sentence

According to this, footnote marks should come at the end of the sentence, after the punctuation, like The inner flow is then reflected at this boundary, leading to an oblique expansion shock (also ...
Jak's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
272 views

APA Citation Quote + End of Sentence

How do we correctly (APA style) end a sentence that ends in a quote and requires a citation? The manual explains it as, "a method for doing something (author, year)." or The manual explains it ...
user2723494's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
45 views

Quotation and Citation

I have a sentence directly copied from a source to a paper. This sentence is cited but not quoted. In this point, it is regarded as plagiarism. Can we say plagiarism for the opposite case: Directly ...
Goktug's user avatar
  • 101
-1 votes
1 answer
44 views

Citations and Commas

How do you write #1? Does #2 need a comma before the word, while or no comma at all? "How is it? Do you like it? she would ask. And that is how we would carry on with our mother/daughter dinners each ...
Autumn Allen's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
63 views

Using 'Ibid' within footnoting A Level

I am currently completing my final piece of A Level coursework for English Literature. I have cited a quote, and then the second quote is from a different place. Wrote out all the relevant details ...
Lauren Wadsworth's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
338 views

Correct way to reference sub bullet list [closed]

d. Include documentation of rating ______ i. Show rating of ______ ii. Include overall ______ 1. Provide relevant documentation ______ In the example above, how would the last 3 ...
Relle's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
2 answers
113 views

Sorting and citation of names like "Heather Mac Donald"

English and citation issue: A person, woman, Heather Mac Donald, the Mac part of the family name, right? Is it being used in sorting or would the person be sorted under Donald? In sense of CSL 1.0.1 ...
wilx's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
40 views

If I use a quote followed by a citation, then a small sentence from the cited material, should I include another citation?

I understand you should always follow a quotation with a citation in academic writing, but how close together can two of the same citations be? Here is the sentence in question: “BitTorrent traffic ...
Ambidextroid's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
225 views

Citations: How to deal with error in the original text caused by repeated word or misspelling?

I'm reading an article I could potentially use for my thesis, but I've come across several errors already. I'm curious on how to do it if I really had to use the words from the original text. I ...
Adelaida Clarke's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
266 views

Citations in Chicago Style For Direct Quote and Subsequent Paragraph - Two Citations and "Ibid.," or One?

I apologize for the political nature of this quote, but this is what I'm working on. I am using the Chicago Manual of Style. I am wondering if, when quoting a comment in a medium-length section that ...
Kalleo's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
3k views

Do I italicize or quote the title of a PDF for a citation?

There're literally thousands of conflicting APA styles on the internet, even different universities with different professors using different standards. It's a truly atrocious system that does nothing ...
John Joe's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
60 views

Abbreviations inside in-text citations

I'm using an in-text citation in my paper which is as follows: Our case studies demonstrate that NGET have already provided a wide range of environmental, security, health and safety, and ...
andrew fay's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
92 views

Punctuation in a sentence including a quotation and the citation of it

In the following sentence, am I right in thinking that there should be a comma after "that" and a capital "I" in "if"? And then I'm completely foxed as to where the full stop should go in relation to ...
awarrenz's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
172 views

How does one cite a source that one knows only indirectly?

I used a quote in my essay that I got from the rubric for the assignment. How do I cite it? I know it's like citing a handout but who’s the author, the teacher or the person who said the quote (...
Alice's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
536 views

How to cite critic reviews in-text but as standalone?

Let me explain after trying to Google, I cannot find information on how to quote a review/testimonial from a critic at a publication outside of the main text. The testimonial/reviews are listed at the ...
BeerBeard's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
92 views

How do I write (not cite) Bible verses in MLA format?

For in-text MLA citations of the Bible, everything I've seen says to write the following: Saint John tells us that "God so loved the world that he sent his only-begotten Son" (Revised Standard ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
6k views

How should I shorten a very wordy title? [closed]

I want to mention a very long title which doesn't have a good shortening using one continuous chunk: An account of a method of dividing astronomical and other instruments, by ocular inspection; in ...
Sodium's user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
1 answer
644 views

How do I quote multiple paragraphs? [closed]

I'm writing a rhetorical analysis paper on Grendel and I'm quoting the following: The monster laughs. Time-space cross-section: Wealtheow. Cut A: Do I block quote? I think the paragraph ...
Mayumi Tabungar's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
102 views

How to cite reset page numbers?

I'm trying to cite a "P.S." section of a book, Green Grass Running Water by Thomas King, but the page numbers just start again from 1 at the start of the P.S. section (i.e. the next page after 430 is ...
RetroCraft's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
38 views

Can I make minor typographical corrections to a title in citations? [closed]

Let's say I need to cite a website or printed report with the title: Broccoli production in Ruritania, 1990-2010 with a hyphen in "1990-2010." In English typography, though, the standard indicator ...
Connor Harris's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
4k views

Indicate my translation in in-text citation [closed]

I hope I'm not repeating this question although I could not find something relevant on this website. I am looking for a way to indicate that a passage from a book is my translation. I'm using in-text ...
John Pap's user avatar