Questions tagged [academia]

Questions related to academic English or English for academic purposes, i.e. the English used in higher education.

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25 views

Is there a more popular alternative to the term 'flexibilization'?

Flexibilization refers to the changing work practices by which firms no longer use internal labor markets or implicitly promise employees lifetime job security, but rather seek flexible employment ...
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1answer
25 views

A more positive equivalent of “relegate”

In scientific literature, I sometimes see expression of this form: We consider results 1, 2, and 3 here, while results 4 and 5 are relegated to Appendix Z. The notion of "relegating" some ...
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4answers
57 views

Violence incidents or violent incidents? [closed]

In an academic paper I discuss violent situations. Is it correct to refer to this as 'violence incidents'? Or should I refer to it as 'violent incidents' instead?
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19 views

Saying a period of time of -ties (ex: the 80s to 90s) for a research paper correctly

I'm trying to write a sentence that mentions a specific period of time, though I'm not sure if I wrote it correctly or not. Here's what I have. We have succeeded in the era of the 1960s to 1980s ...
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27 views

Using “Sequence” in music context

As a part of my academic paper, I wish to use the "Sequence" word. Here is the problem: As you can see in the picture, the "Start Time" of each note is mentioned on the time axis. ...
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2answers
64 views

left arrow, left-pointing arrow, or leftwards arrow? [closed]

In the context of a figure caption referencing a left-pointing arrow in the figure in the following parenthetical way: Fig. 1 | ... Here I describe some process (left arrow). ... A colleague ...
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2answers
43 views

How to say that something doesn't get divided?

For my work, I cluster genes in a way that some genes can be in a cluster of size 10, and others in a cluster of 1, i.e. the gene is a singleton and has no other genes to cluster with. After that, I ...
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5answers
75 views

Choosing the right title for my academic publication [closed]

I'm writing a computer science paper where the concept is "many small pieces would work better that a single big one". Basically the collaboration of multiple small entities would be better ...
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0answers
38 views

“What is x?” as a non-question title

I am working on my PhD thesis. I would like to have section title like "What is x"? (Specifically, "What is Information Flow Security?") However, I wish to avoid rhetorical ...
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67 views

“In the preceding paragraph” vs “in the last paragraph”

I am writing an academic paper. After finishing paragraph A, I want to refer to A in paragraph B, which follows A. I am confused with choosing "in the preceding paragraph" or "in the ...
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0answers
50 views

“Represent” vs “stand for” vs “means”

I am writing an academic paper. I wrote the following sentences Notation A ↔ B stands for that A corresponds to B. Qualid and ident stand for qualified identifiers and simple identifiers, ...
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31 views

“During the proof search” vs “during searching the proof”

I am writing an academic paper and use "during searching the proof" in my paper. But my friend suggested me to use "during the proof search". I also feel "during the proof ...
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1answer
56 views

Founding father/mother or founding figure?

I'm quoting an author who is known as the "founding father" of a scientific discipline. However, I feel that I want to make it sound less patriarchal. Of course, many disciplines had women ...
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35 views

Could we say “discuss future work”?

I am writing my thesis. I have a sentence Finally, we conclude the thesis and discuss future work in Section 6. My friend told me that "discuss future work" was not appropriate, and I ...
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35 views

“one is … another is … ” and “the first is … the second is …”

I am writing an academic paper. I use the following representations: However, up to now, far too little attention has been devoted to two problems of the state-of-the-art proof automation systems. ...
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0answers
26 views

“make them widely used” and “lead to them being widely used”

I have two alternatives in an academic paper. The first is Additionally, the expressive logic foundations of ITPs lead to them being widely used The other is Additionally, the expressive logic ...
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29 views

“constructing proofs directly by hand” or “directly constructing proofs by hand”

There are two alternatives for a sentence Nevertheless, developing automatically verifiable proofs by proof assistants usually takes more time than constructing proofs directly by hand. and ...
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34 views

How to express the “multiple” of one thing's advantage over another?

For example, car A runs at a speed of 30 km/h, and car B at a speed of 90 km/h. How can I express the multiple of B faster than A? B has 3 times advantage over A in speed. B has 2 times advantage ...
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1answer
54 views

Whilst or while, etc - Oxford Spelling

I am writing an academic paper and would like to use the Oxford spelling throughout (I am native British). I read that Oxford spelling generally follows British English other than a few exceptions, ...
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1answer
29 views

worry vs worries

I saw them go through unemployment and worry about putting food on the table. I saw them go through unemployment and worries of putting food on the table. Which is grammatically correct?
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0answers
23 views

Is this sentence correct? ( adj+noun order)

"...possibly generated by the damages intensification of the hexagonal lattice caused by the repeated impact of the steel balls during the milling process." First of all, from my point of view, damage ...
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2answers
82 views

Is this sentence correct? Could you please help me?

This process has been used to aggregate CNTs into metal matrices such as silicon, copper, aluminum and nickel. It sounds ambiguous to me since I cannot tell by who, when or to what extent has this ...
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0answers
20 views

Is this collocation correct?

"This process was used to identify..." I am not sure if "used" is correctly used here along with the word "process". Do you think it is correct, or should I replace it with "performed" or "carried out"...
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0answers
31 views

Is this sentence correct in the way that “and” is used?

"It is a relatively inexpensive process, and also preserves the involved materials in the solid-state, avoiding possible phase limitations." It doesn't sound so good to me, but I am not a native ...
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1answer
146 views

Convention of writing percentage range

I am writing to inquire the convention of writing the following percentage range in academic writing: We reduce the extra cost from 99.9% to 12%--24% (depending on different configuration schemes). ...
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0answers
42 views

Is “get stuck” a proper term in academic writing?

I am writing to inquire the usage of "get stuck" in academic writing. Here is my draft: this design could get stuck in a bad local minima and therefore is not desired. I use Google Scholar to ...
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1answer
66 views

The phrase “too simple”

I've seen three different peer reviewers criticize parts of scientific manuscripts as being "too simple", with little elaboration as to what changes are desired or what it means to be "too simple". ...
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3answers
269 views

What can I call a longer passage in an academic work (text equivalent to “Figure”)?

I want to number blocks of texts in my work (parts of a movie script or something the creators said) so that I can refer to them throughout the essay. Is there an equivalent to 'Figure' to label these ...
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1answer
203 views

What does “is seen to be” mean?

I am writing an academic article and to give conservative opinion, I am thinking to use the following statement: XXX is seen to give worse results and therefore excluded in our report. I am ...
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1answer
82 views

Looking for single word to represent “degree of completion”

I am writing a paper. There is a term used in my work that represents "the degree of completion", i.e., 32% in the phrase "32% was completed". I tried "progress" but think it's not intuitive and "...
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0answers
29 views

capitalization of the word section, theorem,… if refering using both number and adjective/name

I have a question related to Capital letters in "Theorem", "Conjecture" etc, Capitalization of "Theorem 1" in mathematics papers, https://mathoverflow.net/questions/27693/...
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2answers
54 views

A better word/phrase to describe “a more…” in a scientific paper

I am writing a scientific paper on how a cancer staging system may be improved. However, I am a non-native English speaker, and I am concerned that my current title reflects that too much. Please, ...
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2answers
150 views

Does “corroborate” in a scientific context imply confirmation rather “either confirmation or rejection” of findings from previous studies?

I am a non-native English speaker writing a scientific paper. I have question concerning the word corroborate. In my native language, one might say that a research project aim to corroborate ...
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1answer
34 views

Should I use a hyphen in “patient tailored” vs “patient-tailored”?

Being a non-native English speaker, I was wondering which is most correct? (1) Patient-tailored staging of xx carcinoma, or (2) Patient tailored staging of xx carcinoma? It is for a scientific ...
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Tense in Academic Writing

What is the correct tense when writing an academic paper? For example, assuming [1] is a reference, are the following sentences correct? Alice et al. [1] showed that ... [1] shows that ... We show ...
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1answer
60 views

word usage in academic writing - possesses, beyond, ability [closed]

Could you help me to check if this sentence is ok? Beyond having similar osmosis potential to polymer sponges, it is desirable that the covering material possesses the ability of being dispersed by ...
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1answer
123 views

What are typical “emotional absolutes” and why we should avoid them in academic writing?

I am working on a revision of an academic research paper. We performed some empirical studies and wrote a paper to demystify some common misunderstanding of certain techniques. One reviewer gave me ...
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1answer
92 views

What are the synonum of “This is accepted” for academia writing

I'm looking for an academic synonym for "This is accepted with". For example, I want to say This is accepted with the measure X or This is accepted when the X measure increases or this is accepted ...
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1answer
75 views

Can I use alma mater before graduating?

I'm currently writing cover letters for my next position, and I want to refer to the institution I will graduate from. Can I use the term alma mater despite not graduating yet? Thanks!
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6answers
145 views

Noun opposite of a theoretician?

What do you call someone who is concerned with / active in practice and application rather than theory? That is, what is the noun opposite of "theoretician"? I've looked on thesaurus.com, WordHippo....
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1answer
37 views

Single verb to refer a reader to the source of information in academic English

I would like to refer a reader in my research text to the source of information. I wrote in my thesis: "confer Proposition X" or "confer Section A". However, the reviewers suggested I should use ...
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2answers
118 views

Use of present tense in academic writing

I'm a graduate theology student, and I'm having some trouble with verb tenses. In my first chapter I explore the life and work of the author who is the subject of my study. I am often narrating in the ...
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1answer
65 views

“Many” as a pronoun at the beginning of a sentence

I am unable to decide if I should use 'many' to express "many people" in an academic writing. It goes like: Many claim that ambiguity is a result of an inefficient parsing. Do you see any problem ...
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1answer
54 views

Formal way of saying “dig it out”

I am writing an academic manuscript to describe the action of "digging certain stuff out." For instance, given an image containing several pedestrians, my image analysis techniques can extract those ...
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0answers
35 views

Using hyphenation to avoid ambiguity

When I write a research paper, I often use hyphenation in order to avoid ambiguity. For example, consider the phrase fractionally Pareto optimal allocation A person who does not know these terms ...
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3answers
63 views

Which one of these sentences is better? A thesis title - Apostrophes Showing Possession [closed]

Sentence 1 : The comparison of Muhammed Bedruddîn Mahmûd el-Aynî’s "Şerhu Süneni Ebû Davud" and "Umdet'ül- Kârî" books Sentence 2 : Comparison of the "Şerhu Süneni Ebû Davud" and "Umdet'ül- Kârî" ...
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2answers
838 views

Do I have to use “I” or “we” when orally presenting my scientific thesis written by a single author? [closed]

I know that in a scientific paper or thesis made by a single author, it is common to use we. (This is also recommended at our university.) But what about when you alone are presenting a thesis work ...
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1answer
46 views

A word for the property of scaling distance between two endpoints?

Scalability is defined as the capacity to be changed in size or scale. In Computer Science, the term is often used in a context such as scalable networks, scalable algorithms, etc. However, I want ...
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1answer
56 views

Using phrases in email to prof (academic)

1. "I hope you are doing well" Will be it polite, if I write it in an email to Proff/start an email with it? He was ill, and we wrote me about it 2. Thank you for taking time from your busy schedule ...
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1answer
20 views

How do you describe a study which attempts to isolate the compounding effect of factor A on factor B? [closed]

Shameless cry for academic help here. I'm working on my thesis, which is a study that will focus on the compounding effect of group dynamics on persuasive technology. The control and treatment group ...