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Questions tagged [academia]

Questions related to academic English or English for academic purposes, i.e. the English used in higher education.

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Is omitting the definite article in this case grammatically correct (and preferable)?

I had written the following sentence in a manuscript: After each transaction, the balance of the sender account equals their balance immediately before the transaction minus the amount of funds ...
bp99's user avatar
  • 139
1 vote
0 answers
135 views

Why would someone use their native regional accent instead of BBC English at an international conference? [closed]

Anecdote. A friend of mine works at the Chemistry department of a university in the Netherlands. My friend went to a scientific conference in continental Europe. The participants from continental ...
M. Wind's user avatar
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2 answers
76 views

When you compare an object to a reference object, what noun to use to refer to the former?

I am in the process of writing a research paper that compares my Methods A and B against a commonly accepted gold standard (reference) method. All methods produce objects that are identical in the ...
Enuff's user avatar
  • 101
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0 answers
61 views

Has the notion of an addonym - or a word with a similar meaning - been described in the English language before?

Background In the near future, I am planning on publishing my first scientific article as a PhD candidate. My surname is very common in countries like Germany and Austria, and my first name is quite ...
Max Muller's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
129 views

Is "Fair Witness" an adequate alternative term for "whistle blower" in academia?

It was suggested to me to use the term "fair witness" instead of "whistle blower" (when proposing to design a university course about such topic, and potentially an academic study ...
J..y B..y's user avatar
  • 131
-1 votes
2 answers
71 views

Term for creating Terminology

I’ve been struggling to remember a word for “creating discrete terminology.” It feels like an academic word used in linguistics in the vein of “semiotics,” (but not dealing with signs, dealing with ...
Kobi's user avatar
  • 101
0 votes
2 answers
122 views

Possessive Contraction over Equations and Mathematical/Physics Laws

In my mother language, Spanish, when we refer to a famous equation, say those for electromagnetism, we say "Ecuaciones de Maxwell". This translates, literally, as "Equations of Maxwell&...
Vicente Sierra Rosas's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
75 views

More professional ways to express "something else I have learned" as the title of a slide

I am a PhD student and I was preparing a slide presentation for summarizing what I did and learned in the last year. My plan is first presenting research work progress and then showing what I have ...
Chen Deng's user avatar
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0 answers
63 views

Usage of "broaden the perspective"

I would like to ask if the phrase "broaden the perspective" can be used in academic papers or is there a way to write it better? The usage is the following: "I believe that children ...
obolenskaya00's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
159 views

Em dash to introduce a quote

Is it fine to introduce a direct quote with an em dash? I want to briefly summarise a quote, while still giving it in full. Something like: However, Smith (2021) argued that foo can in fact improve ...
Michal Charemza's user avatar
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1 answer
116 views

Bachelor vs Engineer degree and thesis [closed]

So when it comes to my education I have earned an Engineer's degree at some European university, and my final thesis was some thing that I definitely would like to boast about before my future, ...
Isla Yoder's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
162 views

manifests or manifests itself

The sentence (from University Physics book, the image of full text is attached): The work done by nonconservative forces manifests itself as changes in the internal energy of objects. Can we delete ...
Ben's user avatar
  • 105
-1 votes
1 answer
88 views

Let us suppose vs Suppose [closed]

When should we use "Let us suppose", and when "Suppose" in science academic articles? Example 1: Suppose the electric field lines in a region of space are straight lines. or ...
Ben's user avatar
  • 105
2 votes
3 answers
70 views

A word to describe an assistant who knows when to ask me for help on cases he is not familiar with?

I have an assistant who helps me deal with some daily works. Currently, he deals with everything on his own. Apparently, there are cases he is not familiar with, but he never reports them to me. So I ...
user2301791's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
116 views

How to describe a scenario that is close to the real conditions

I am writing a technical paper that includes economic analysis. In one section, I need to give a justification for choosing interest rates used in the study. I am trying to say the interest rates were ...
mo adib's user avatar
  • 113
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0 answers
39 views

Academic course repeats every week and every term. Succinct terminology to tell one from the other?

I am participating in an academic course that is multiple weeks long (the course spans a full term / a full semester). In some years, the whole course is offered multiple times a year (every term / ...
user428018's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
59 views

Single word request: cancer patients' prognosis is bad (serious)

I, a non-native English speaker, am writing an academic summary in medicine and I am trying to find a word for describing that cancer patients prognosis is bad. However, "bad" isn't an ...
ethan282712's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
146 views

Word for converting grades from one system to another?

Say I attended high score in country A, where students are given grades in the form of letters (A–F). I want to attend university in country B, where high school grades are in the form of numbers, say ...
hb20007's user avatar
  • 1,744
0 votes
1 answer
70 views

Dissertation: correct writing of a numbered list [closed]

Are there any grammatical rules for numbered lists (my university does not have a guideline for this)? Which format would be correct for the given example of numbered objectives? Two things that I ...
qw45ty's user avatar
  • 65
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Is "arts" (a subject in schools) a singular noun?

When used as subject, is the word arts considered a singular noun or a plural one? Art is my favorite class at school this term. Arts is? my favorite class at school this term. Why can’t we just say ...
user27485's user avatar
  • 147
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0 answers
25 views

Should we not use abbreviations at all in academic writing? [duplicate]

I submitted a paper to a computer science conference, and the reviewer mentioned that I should correct grammar/writing issues throughout the paper. Some of the things he/she mentioned: don't -> do ...
LGDGODV's user avatar
  • 103
-1 votes
2 answers
157 views

More formal way of saying "taking almost all"

I am trying to revise the following statement: A takes almost all the rewards which are usually given to clients contributing important attributes. The takes almost all seems not very formal and ...
lllllllllllll's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
663 views

"The problem under consideration" vs "The considered problem" vs "The problem considered" [closed]

I'm writing a research essay. Is there any difference between the provided three variants? If so, which is best to use?
pigeon_gcc's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
931 views

Looking for a verb that means division into multiple branches

I am looking for a verb that describes division into multiple branches. The context is an academic report that describes a graph that contains four curves over the range of -3 to 3. Over half the ...
mo adib's user avatar
  • 113
1 vote
0 answers
67 views

What are the rules for pluralising abbreviations?

Especially in academic writing, pluralisation of abbreviations is a very handy device: ‘p’→‘pp’¹ is ‘page’→‘pages’, ‘ed’→‘edd’ becomes ‘editors’, ‘ll’ is ‘lines’, ‘nn’ is ‘notes’.² The rule (given ‘ed’...
Canned Man's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
198 views

"Consent" in passive voice to refer to subject giving consent?

I noticed a usage I consider odd while copy editing, and I'm hoping someone can explain it. Here are two examples from published academic work: Participants were consented to the study between 13 ...
TaliesinMerlin's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
64 views

Is there a more popular alternative to the term 'flexibilization'?

Flexibilization refers to the changing work practices by which firms no longer use internal labor markets or implicitly promise employees lifetime job security, but rather seek flexible employment ...
Anna's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
4 answers
92 views

Violence incidents or violent incidents? [closed]

In an academic paper I discuss violent situations. Is it correct to refer to this as 'violence incidents'? Or should I refer to it as 'violent incidents' instead?
Emil's user avatar
  • 109
0 votes
0 answers
37 views

Saying a period of time of -ties (ex: the 80s to 90s) for a research paper correctly

I'm trying to write a sentence that mentions a specific period of time, though I'm not sure if I wrote it correctly or not. Here's what I have. We have succeeded in the era of the 1960s to 1980s ...
dani555's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
38 views

Using "Sequence" in music context

As a part of my academic paper, I wish to use the "Sequence" word. Here is the problem: As you can see in the picture, the "Start Time" of each note is mentioned on the time axis. ...
Mironline's user avatar
  • 111
2 votes
2 answers
151 views

left arrow, left-pointing arrow, or leftwards arrow? [closed]

In the context of a figure caption referencing a left-pointing arrow in the figure in the following parenthetical way: Fig. 1 | ... Here I describe some process (left arrow). ... A colleague ...
Zlatko-Minev's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
51 views

How to say that something doesn't get divided?

For my work, I cluster genes in a way that some genes can be in a cluster of size 10, and others in a cluster of 1, i.e. the gene is a singleton and has no other genes to cluster with. After that, I ...
CheesyGnocchi's user avatar
0 votes
5 answers
81 views

Choosing the right title for my academic publication [closed]

I'm writing a computer science paper where the concept is "many small pieces would work better that a single big one". Basically the collaboration of multiple small entities would be better ...
Mary's user avatar
  • 135
0 votes
0 answers
42 views

"What is x?" as a non-question title

I am working on my PhD thesis. I would like to have section title like "What is x"? (Specifically, "What is Information Flow Security?") However, I wish to avoid rhetorical ...
David Poxon's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
1k views

"In the preceding paragraph" vs "in the last paragraph"

I am writing an academic paper. After finishing paragraph A, I want to refer to A in paragraph B, which follows A. I am confused with choosing "in the preceding paragraph" or "in the ...
ZhangLiao's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
905 views

"Represent" vs "stand for" vs "means"

I am writing an academic paper. I wrote the following sentences Notation A ↔ B stands for that A corresponds to B. Qualid and ident stand for qualified identifiers and simple identifiers, ...
ZhangLiao's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
81 views

"During the proof search" vs "during searching the proof"

I am writing an academic paper and use "during searching the proof" in my paper. But my friend suggested me to use "during the proof search". I also feel "during the proof ...
ZhangLiao's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
338 views

Founding father/mother or founding figure?

I'm quoting an author who is known as the "founding father" of a scientific discipline. However, I feel that I want to make it sound less patriarchal. Of course, many disciplines had women ...
writer_typer's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
331 views

Could we say "discuss future work"?

I am writing my thesis. I have a sentence Finally, we conclude the thesis and discuss future work in Section 6. My friend told me that "discuss future work" was not appropriate, and I ...
ZhangLiao's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
824 views

"one is ... another is ... " and "the first is ... the second is ...."

I am writing an academic paper. I use the following representations: However, up to now, far too little attention has been devoted to two problems of the state-of-the-art proof automation systems. ...
ZhangLiao's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
96 views

"make them widely used" and "lead to them being widely used"

I have two alternatives in an academic paper. The first is Additionally, the expressive logic foundations of ITPs lead to them being widely used The other is Additionally, the expressive logic ...
ZhangLiao's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
51 views

"constructing proofs directly by hand" or "directly constructing proofs by hand"

There are two alternatives for a sentence Nevertheless, developing automatically verifiable proofs by proof assistants usually takes more time than constructing proofs directly by hand. and ...
ZhangLiao's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
62 views

How to express the "multiple" of one thing's advantage over another?

For example, car A runs at a speed of 30 km/h, and car B at a speed of 90 km/h. How can I express the multiple of B faster than A? B has 3 times advantage over A in speed. B has 2 times advantage ...
Zachary's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
283 views

Whilst or while, etc - Oxford Spelling

I am writing an academic paper and would like to use the Oxford spelling throughout. (I am native British.) I read that Oxford spelling generally follows British English other than a few exceptions, ...
Cloud Chem's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
143 views

worry vs worries

I saw them go through unemployment and worry about putting food on the table. I saw them go through unemployment and worries of putting food on the table. Which is grammatically correct?
Ahsan Ayaz's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
29 views

Is this sentence correct? ( adj+noun order)

"...possibly generated by the damages intensification of the hexagonal lattice caused by the repeated impact of the steel balls during the milling process." First of all, from my point of view, damage ...
Dani Otheguy's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
98 views

Is this sentence correct? Could you please help me?

This process has been used to aggregate CNTs into metal matrices such as silicon, copper, aluminum and nickel. It sounds ambiguous to me since I cannot tell by who, when or to what extent has this ...
Dani Otheguy's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
33 views

Is this collocation correct?

"This process was used to identify..." I am not sure if "used" is correctly used here along with the word "process". Do you think it is correct, or should I replace it with "performed" or "carried out"...
Dani Otheguy's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
34 views

Is this sentence correct in the way that "and" is used?

"It is a relatively inexpensive process, and also preserves the involved materials in the solid-state, avoiding possible phase limitations." It doesn't sound so good to me, but I am not a native ...
Dani Otheguy's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
3k views

Convention of writing percentage range

I am writing to inquire the convention of writing the following percentage range in academic writing: We reduce the extra cost from 99.9% to 12%--24% (depending on different configuration schemes). ...
lllllllllllll's user avatar

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