Questions tagged [academia]

Questions related to academic English or English for academic purposes, i.e. the English used in higher education.

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21 views

Should we not use abbreviations at all in academic writing? [duplicate]

I submitted a paper to a computer science conference, and the reviewer mentioned that I should correct grammar/writing issues throughout the paper. Some of the things he/she mentioned: don't -> do ...
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34 views

Less intensive way of saying “negate/nullify”

I am trying to revise the following statement: A negate/nullify the contribution of B. The nullify or negate seems too strong. I want to imply the fact that A will make, say, 80% of B's contribution ...
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31 views

More formal way of saying “taking almost all”

I am trying to revise the following statement: A takes almost all the rewards which are usually given to clients contributing important attributes. The takes almost all seems not very formal and ...
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1answer
40 views

“The problem under consideration” vs “The considered problem” vs “The problem considered”

I'm writing a research essay. Is there any difference between the provided three variants? If there is, which is best to use?
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2answers
47 views

Looking for a verb that means division into multiple branches

I am looking for a verb that describes division into multiple branches. The context is an academic report that describes a graph that contains four curves over the range of -3 to 3. Over half the ...
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53 views

What are the rules for pluralising abbreviations?

Especially in academic writing, pluralisation of abbreviations is a very handy device: ‘p’→‘pp’¹ is ‘page’→‘pages’, ‘ed’→‘edd’ becomes ‘editors’, ‘ll’ is ‘lines’, ‘nn’ is ‘notes’.² The rule (given ‘ed’...
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2answers
65 views

“Consent” in passive voice to refer to subject giving consent?

I noticed a usage I consider odd while copy editing, and I'm hoping someone can explain it. Here are two examples from published academic work: Participants were consented to the study between 13 ...
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2answers
36 views

Is there a more popular alternative to the term 'flexibilization'?

Flexibilization refers to the changing work practices by which firms no longer use internal labor markets or implicitly promise employees lifetime job security, but rather seek flexible employment ...
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4answers
62 views

Violence incidents or violent incidents? [closed]

In an academic paper I discuss violent situations. Is it correct to refer to this as 'violence incidents'? Or should I refer to it as 'violent incidents' instead?
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22 views

Saying a period of time of -ties (ex: the 80s to 90s) for a research paper correctly

I'm trying to write a sentence that mentions a specific period of time, though I'm not sure if I wrote it correctly or not. Here's what I have. We have succeeded in the era of the 1960s to 1980s ...
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29 views

Using “Sequence” in music context

As a part of my academic paper, I wish to use the "Sequence" word. Here is the problem: As you can see in the picture, the "Start Time" of each note is mentioned on the time axis. ...
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2answers
74 views

left arrow, left-pointing arrow, or leftwards arrow? [closed]

In the context of a figure caption referencing a left-pointing arrow in the figure in the following parenthetical way: Fig. 1 | ... Here I describe some process (left arrow). ... A colleague ...
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2answers
43 views

How to say that something doesn't get divided?

For my work, I cluster genes in a way that some genes can be in a cluster of size 10, and others in a cluster of 1, i.e. the gene is a singleton and has no other genes to cluster with. After that, I ...
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5answers
75 views

Choosing the right title for my academic publication [closed]

I'm writing a computer science paper where the concept is "many small pieces would work better that a single big one". Basically the collaboration of multiple small entities would be better ...
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38 views

“What is x?” as a non-question title

I am working on my PhD thesis. I would like to have section title like "What is x"? (Specifically, "What is Information Flow Security?") However, I wish to avoid rhetorical ...
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139 views

“In the preceding paragraph” vs “in the last paragraph”

I am writing an academic paper. After finishing paragraph A, I want to refer to A in paragraph B, which follows A. I am confused with choosing "in the preceding paragraph" or "in the ...
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94 views

“Represent” vs “stand for” vs “means”

I am writing an academic paper. I wrote the following sentences Notation A ↔ B stands for that A corresponds to B. Qualid and ident stand for qualified identifiers and simple identifiers, ...
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32 views

“During the proof search” vs “during searching the proof”

I am writing an academic paper and use "during searching the proof" in my paper. But my friend suggested me to use "during the proof search". I also feel "during the proof ...
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1answer
62 views

Founding father/mother or founding figure?

I'm quoting an author who is known as the "founding father" of a scientific discipline. However, I feel that I want to make it sound less patriarchal. Of course, many disciplines had women ...
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54 views

Could we say “discuss future work”?

I am writing my thesis. I have a sentence Finally, we conclude the thesis and discuss future work in Section 6. My friend told me that "discuss future work" was not appropriate, and I ...
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47 views

“one is … another is … ” and “the first is … the second is …”

I am writing an academic paper. I use the following representations: However, up to now, far too little attention has been devoted to two problems of the state-of-the-art proof automation systems. ...
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36 views

“make them widely used” and “lead to them being widely used”

I have two alternatives in an academic paper. The first is Additionally, the expressive logic foundations of ITPs lead to them being widely used The other is Additionally, the expressive logic ...
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30 views

“constructing proofs directly by hand” or “directly constructing proofs by hand”

There are two alternatives for a sentence Nevertheless, developing automatically verifiable proofs by proof assistants usually takes more time than constructing proofs directly by hand. and ...
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35 views

How to express the “multiple” of one thing's advantage over another?

For example, car A runs at a speed of 30 km/h, and car B at a speed of 90 km/h. How can I express the multiple of B faster than A? B has 3 times advantage over A in speed. B has 2 times advantage ...
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1answer
67 views

Whilst or while, etc - Oxford Spelling

I am writing an academic paper and would like to use the Oxford spelling throughout (I am native British). I read that Oxford spelling generally follows British English other than a few exceptions, ...
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1answer
34 views

worry vs worries

I saw them go through unemployment and worry about putting food on the table. I saw them go through unemployment and worries of putting food on the table. Which is grammatically correct?
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23 views

Is this sentence correct? ( adj+noun order)

"...possibly generated by the damages intensification of the hexagonal lattice caused by the repeated impact of the steel balls during the milling process." First of all, from my point of view, damage ...
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2answers
83 views

Is this sentence correct? Could you please help me?

This process has been used to aggregate CNTs into metal matrices such as silicon, copper, aluminum and nickel. It sounds ambiguous to me since I cannot tell by who, when or to what extent has this ...
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21 views

Is this collocation correct?

"This process was used to identify..." I am not sure if "used" is correctly used here along with the word "process". Do you think it is correct, or should I replace it with "performed" or "carried out"...
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31 views

Is this sentence correct in the way that “and” is used?

"It is a relatively inexpensive process, and also preserves the involved materials in the solid-state, avoiding possible phase limitations." It doesn't sound so good to me, but I am not a native ...
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1answer
442 views

Convention of writing percentage range

I am writing to inquire the convention of writing the following percentage range in academic writing: We reduce the extra cost from 99.9% to 12%--24% (depending on different configuration schemes). ...
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53 views

Is “get stuck” a proper term in academic writing?

I am writing to inquire the usage of "get stuck" in academic writing. Here is my draft: this design could get stuck in a bad local minima and therefore is not desired. I use Google Scholar to ...
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1answer
145 views

The phrase “too simple”

I've seen three different peer reviewers criticize parts of scientific manuscripts as being "too simple", with little elaboration as to what changes are desired or what it means to be "too simple". ...
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3answers
288 views

What can I call a longer passage in an academic work (text equivalent to “Figure”)?

I want to number blocks of texts in my work (parts of a movie script or something the creators said) so that I can refer to them throughout the essay. Is there an equivalent to 'Figure' to label these ...
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1answer
417 views

What does “is seen to be” mean?

I am writing an academic article and to give conservative opinion, I am thinking to use the following statement: XXX is seen to give worse results and therefore excluded in our report. I am ...
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1answer
117 views

Looking for single word to represent “degree of completion”

I am writing a paper. There is a term used in my work that represents "the degree of completion", i.e., 32% in the phrase "32% was completed". I tried "progress" but think it's not intuitive and "...
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35 views

capitalization of the word section, theorem,… if refering using both number and adjective/name

I have a question related to Capital letters in "Theorem", "Conjecture" etc, Capitalization of "Theorem 1" in mathematics papers, https://mathoverflow.net/questions/27693/...
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2answers
56 views

A better word/phrase to describe “a more…” in a scientific paper

I am writing a scientific paper on how a cancer staging system may be improved. However, I am a non-native English speaker, and I am concerned that my current title reflects that too much. Please, ...
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2answers
256 views

Does “corroborate” in a scientific context imply confirmation rather “either confirmation or rejection” of findings from previous studies?

I am a non-native English speaker writing a scientific paper. I have question concerning the word corroborate. In my native language, one might say that a research project aim to corroborate ...
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1answer
45 views

Should I use a hyphen in “patient tailored” vs “patient-tailored”?

Being a non-native English speaker, I was wondering which is most correct? (1) Patient-tailored staging of xx carcinoma, or (2) Patient tailored staging of xx carcinoma? It is for a scientific ...
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51 views

Tense in Academic Writing

What is the correct tense when writing an academic paper? For example, assuming [1] is a reference, are the following sentences correct? Alice et al. [1] showed that ... [1] shows that ... We show ...
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60 views

word usage in academic writing - possesses, beyond, ability [closed]

Could you help me to check if this sentence is ok? Beyond having similar osmosis potential to polymer sponges, it is desirable that the covering material possesses the ability of being dispersed by ...
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1answer
137 views

What are typical “emotional absolutes” and why we should avoid them in academic writing?

I am working on a revision of an academic research paper. We performed some empirical studies and wrote a paper to demystify some common misunderstanding of certain techniques. One reviewer gave me ...
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1answer
106 views

What are the synonum of “This is accepted” for academia writing

I'm looking for an academic synonym for "This is accepted with". For example, I want to say This is accepted with the measure X or This is accepted when the X measure increases or this is accepted ...
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1answer
91 views

Can I use alma mater before graduating?

I'm currently writing cover letters for my next position, and I want to refer to the institution I will graduate from. Can I use the term alma mater despite not graduating yet? Thanks!
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6answers
157 views

Noun opposite of a theoretician?

What do you call someone who is concerned with / active in practice and application rather than theory? That is, what is the noun opposite of "theoretician"? I've looked on thesaurus.com, WordHippo....
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1answer
38 views

Single verb to refer a reader to the source of information in academic English

I would like to refer a reader in my research text to the source of information. I wrote in my thesis: "confer Proposition X" or "confer Section A". However, the reviewers suggested I should use ...
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2answers
132 views

Use of present tense in academic writing

I'm a graduate theology student, and I'm having some trouble with verb tenses. In my first chapter I explore the life and work of the author who is the subject of my study. I am often narrating in the ...
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1answer
70 views

“Many” as a pronoun at the beginning of a sentence

I am unable to decide if I should use 'many' to express "many people" in an academic writing. It goes like: Many claim that ambiguity is a result of an inefficient parsing. Do you see any problem ...
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1answer
59 views

Formal way of saying “dig it out”

I am writing an academic manuscript to describe the action of "digging certain stuff out." For instance, given an image containing several pedestrians, my image analysis techniques can extract those ...