Questions tagged [abbreviations]

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word, or phrase, typically created by taking initial letters for example OEM for Original Equipment Manufacturer or shortening the word, for example 'Tues' for Tuesday.

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What determines how one should vocalise an abbreviation when reading aloud?

When, in reading something aloud, one encounters an abbreviation, there are three possible approaches to vocalising it. (1) Sometimes one will vocalise the abbreviation letter-by-letter. This is ...
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If I'd like to indicate a duration of more than x years, can I write it as “+x years”?

For instance, can I say "we provided +10 hours of programming services"?
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When is usage still subsequent in a very long document?

We are supposed to spell out a military rank when used before a soldier's name, e.g., Master Sergeant John Doe. In subsequent usage, we are supposed to abbreviate the title to Master Sgt. John Doe ...
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68 views

What does G2 (chapter title) refer to in Death by Meeting?

In Death by Meeting, by Patrick Lencioni (the book is about leadership), There is a chapter entitled "G2." Since it is the title, there is not enough context for me to figure out its meaning,...
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Is it typo or correct? [duplicate]

I was reading some parts of Ant-Man and the Wasp movie transcript from this site I saw this sentence in it: but what's this have to do with where Scott Lang is? Can we abbreviate does to s like when ...
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“df.” as an abbreviation

I'm reading a book and I stumbled upon the following paragraph, in context of doing a conceptual analysis, to quote: Ml: Motherhood is the conjunction of femaleness and parent-hood. M2: To be ...
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Abbreviations in Archive Reference

I've just finished a book about American history, and I somehow turned to the pages of Notes. The words in the archive reference are new to me, I managed to figure out some abbreviation with Google, ...
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24 views

When expressing ownership of something with apostrophe + s, is there a “full name” for it?

When saying "it's", that's an abbreviation of "it is" or "it has". When expressing ownership using the same pattern, "something's", what's the "full name&...
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How is NB being used here - “This way there is no whole NB to getting rice from the plant”

I got this reply in a discussion about cooking rice and why packet rice is better. NB is Nota Bene from Italian and is "Note Well" in English, but how is "Note Well" being used ...
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48 views

About i.e. and e.g [closed]

I have four small questions about i.e. and e.g. How do you call them, “words” or other things? When using (writing or typing), do we usually use the italic version i.e. / e.g. or the normal version i....
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Is there a common abbreviation for “with or without”? e.g. _w/wo_ or _w/w/o_

Is there a common abbreviation for "with or without"? e.g. w/wo or w/w/o Obviously, something this complex is best written in full form, but I'm looking for something to use in space ...
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Looking for an idiom for the time between production and selling

what is the idiom or abbreviation that use for the time between production and selling? for example, Zara has less ??? than Nike
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What does “s.d.” mean here?

"32. Percy, Mahomet, ‘The Properties’. 33. Ibid., 1.1.26. 34. Ibid., 1.1.31, 49. 35. Ibid., 4.3.347. 36. Ibid., 4.6.37. 37. Ibid., 5.4.6. 38. Ibid., 5.13, s.d. 39. Ibid., 5.13. 3– 4. 40. Ibid., 5....
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45 views

Shortcut for does not exist [closed]

I am currently programming an application, and as it turns out the term "Does not exist" is commonly shortened to "Not exists". I was curious which would be the more proper term because to me "Not ...
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How do I identify a Nominalization so I can replace it with an Action Verb?

I'm taking a course on Plain Language and they state that Nominalizations are bad as they make a sentence longer. (There are a whole 12 people taking the course). The course states that ...
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Do native English speakers pronouce b as m?

I very often study English and try to improve my listening skill with some educational materials. And I just encountered a sentence, "Once he made an alarm clock for cats – you know, to wake them ...
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42 views

What is the meaning of 'compl.' in 'compl. steel' [closed]

I've encountered the term 'compl. steel' in a document (related to mechanical engineering). Simple googling of the term shows many pages related to mechanical engineering and metalworks, but it doesn'...
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Why is the prefix “Trans” shortened to “X”? [duplicate]

In technical literature as well as aircraft user interfaces where there is not enough space to write the whole word, the prefix "trans" is shortened to "x". Transmit -> Xmit ...
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Origin of the abbreviation St. for Street

What is the origin of the abbreviation St. for Street? Why did an address such as 123 Fake Street Become 123 Fake St. ? This question is related to a history stackexchange question about the ...
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HQs : plural of the abbreviation of “headquarters” [duplicate]

According to the CambridgeGEL, headquarters has the same singular and plural form, but HQs is the plural of the abbreviation of "headquarters". Aren't both statements contradictory? ...
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29 views

How often “fat” is used as an abbreviation for fat cattle?

I'm interested to know how often (if at all) "fat" is used as a shortening for Fat Cattle. I think I've found one source that suggests this kind of usage: At fat auctions in the north, ...
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1answer
42 views

What does “p.c.” next to a name stand for in academic papers?

What does the abbreviation "p.c." next to a name stand for in academic papers? Here are a couple of examples: https://www.leibniz-zas.de/fileadmin/Archiv2019/mitarbeiter/frey/frey_2004-VF....
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Meaning of “resp.” in Debian acpi command

I was recently reading the documentation for the Debian ACPI client's acpi command, and came across the following line that I was unsure of the meaning of. $ acpi --help Usage: acpi [OPTION]... Shows ...
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Could anyone explain to me the meaning of the abbreviation Nagel's?

I'm not quite sure I understand correctly the meaning of the word in bold font. There are two paragraphs that open the first chapter of "Set This House on Fire": Of the drive from Salerno to Sambuco, ...
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70 views

When is it more correct to say 'did not' and when 'didn't'?

I noticed multiple times, when writing in Microsoft Word that the program suggests a correction, from either form to the other. I can't seem to follow the logic. When is it better to say did not, ...
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44 views

Using an abbreviation for noun AND verb (community garden/ing)

I am writing a paper about community gardening and use community garden(s) and community gardening extensively. I would like to abbreviate both as CG. I can't find guidelines on if this is allowed (...
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1answer
50 views

How to list a list of PhDs

How do I list a list of PhDs? Usually names and abbreviations are separated by a comma. For example: John Doe, Ph.D. So if I have a list of Ph.D. holders: John Doe, Ph.D., Jane Doe, Ph.D., John ...
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What is the sign, used in documentation, that means illegible--in the same fashion as [sic]?

For example, if you're transcribing something into a digital format and a segment is too illegible to be transcribed, what parenthetical element should you put in that segment? I remember that there ...
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1answer
81 views

Why the abbreviation for the Doctor of Optometry is O. D.?

The abbreviation for the Doctor of Optometry is O.D.. instead of D.O. - Could someone help me understand the reason? Thank you! "Optometrists are Doctors of Optometry (O.D.) who may prescribe ...
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104 views

Capital letter in abbreviation for “standard deviation”?

I need to use an abbreviation for "standard deviation". I know I can use "SD", but today i was asked to use "Std. Dev." instead. Std. can be used as abbreviation for standard. My question is about ...
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Does an abbreviation which is written in lowercase have to be capitalised after a period? [duplicate]

I must use after a period an abbreviation which is "mtDNA" (mitochondrial DNA). It is always abbreviated with the two first letters in lowercase. I'm struggling to find a rule to know whether the "m" ...
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1answer
868 views

What did the word “Ade” mean in the English of a hundred years ago?

Saw this in the news today and think I see the word Ade, but have never seen it before. Is it Ade? Or Ode? Wde? What does it mean? Is it an abbreviation?
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56 views

Combining open compounds using hyphen in enumerations

In German, when enumerating stuff, one could use an "Ergänzungsstrich". This means that parts of compound words in enumerations that are equal can be shortened like this: Ich mag Eisenbahn-, ...
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91 views

Is there an abbr. for 'Up To Today/Date' like YTD?

While giving a short comment for the report, to describe that the data is counted from the beginning to today. It's just like YTD - Year To Day, except that I don't care about the starting date here. ...
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60 views

Usage of “p.” vs “pp.” to denote two separate pages

I understand that "p." is used for single page references, and "pp." for multipage pages. However, if I'm quoting something from p. 35 and p. 40 from the same book, should I use "p. 35 and p. 40", or "...
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When creating an initialism of a country's full name, should the “o” in “of” be capitalized once initialized?

When creating an initialism of a country's full name, should the "o" in "of" be capitalized once initialized? For example, should Republic of Ireland be "ROI" or "RoI"?
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How would you abbreviate “sixteen dollars and fifty cents an hour”?

The full sentence is Some mechanics are now earning sixteen dollars and fifty cents an hour. Should I let it be or change it as follows? Some mechanics are now earning $16.50.
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Is it CoViD? Or COVID? Covid? How should the word be spelled?

I have seen it spelled COVID-19, but I have also seen Covid-19. In addition, I believe I have seen CoViD-19, capitalising only the first letter of each word from which it was abbreviated (for it isn't ...
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955 views

Shouldn't vs should not usage

I have heard many people say 'shouldn't it be ...' when correcting someone but today I was writing a formal email and I did not want to use any shorthand notation so I tried to expand it as 'should ...
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Why do so many people insist on using incomprehensible, obscure, ambiguous acronyms all the time? [closed]

I work in clinical healthcare. I won't be able to step away any time I want and we are already having problems getting PPE. Okay? "PPE"? Then I have to manually look that up on Wikipedia, and get ...
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1answer
54 views

Dropping the article before government agency abbreviations?

I live in Washington DC and work for a government contractor. In conversation, people often drop the "the" before the acronym of a federal agency. For example, someone might say "I ...
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1answer
40 views

The Tinternet irresolution

Good time of the day. I had been wondering whether or not I can shorten "The Internet"; thus, I went online and stumbled upon the word Tinternet in the urban dictionary. Can you please tell me is it ...
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45 views

Net as an abbreviation for network?

I'm wondering if net is a suitable abbreviation for network. On the one hand, it sounds fine for me (maybe because I'm used to this terminology from the internet or similar). Apart from that, common ...
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1answer
85 views

Why is natural logarithm abbreviated to ln? [closed]

In mathematics, the natural logarithm operator is abbreviated as ln. There is no letter n in the word logarithm, so why do we abbreviate in this way?
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92 views

Would you add the plural “s” to the short form of an abbreviation on first reference?

When you want to give a group of words an abbreviation or short form so it doesn't have to be repeated in long form each time, and it is plural, how would it be abbreviated on first reference? Would ...
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1answer
100 views

When did the UK stop using full stops in abbreviations and acronyms?

I have noticed that in older (usually over 30 or 40 years old) British books and newspapers, abbreviations are without exception typeset with in full stops, as is still the practice in the United ...
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Date version of

When referring to part of a book starting from one page but without a final page, it's common to see this referred to as (e.g.) "pg. 55 ff", as described here. Is there something similar for a year ...
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1answer
105 views

What is the plural for the abbreviation of the word “captain”?

I thought it would be Cpts., as in: "Captains Johansson and Riley were present" -> "Cpts. Johansson and Riley were present", but I cannot find anything definitive online. Additionally, I would have ...
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457 views

Initials of surnames with Saint (St.)

When writing the initials of a surname such as "St. John" (I will use the first name of Tom for an example), would those initials be written as 'TSJ' or 'TS' or 'TJ' or are all of these equally common?...
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28 views

What's the correct articulation for abbreviated words? [duplicate]

How to articulate abbreviated words when the original word articulation conflicts the pronunciation of the word? For example, I would say A Facebook campaign for Donald Trump But abbreviating ...

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