I'm trying to translate this text to Polish and everything seems pretty clear to me, apart from the usage of the words "within" and "without". I presume it's some kind of technical vocabulary referring to the subject of jousting. Could someone explain to me what these words mean? Here are three excerpts from the text:

  • At those jousts the noble ladies and damsels will give the knight who jousts best of those without a horn garnished with gold, and they will give to the one who jousts best of those within a white greyhound with a collar of gold around its neck.

  • And the noble ladies will give a circlet of gold to the one who jousts best of those without. And one within that jousts best will be given a golden belt.

  • And there will be given in the same field to whoever jousts best of those without a noble courser, saddled and bridled. And whoever jousts best of those within will be given a fine chaplet well worked with silk.

2 Answers 2


From earlier in the text:

And the following Monday the said twenty knights, in one livery as aforesaid, will be within the said field of Smithfield, armed and mounted within the lists, before the hour of High Prime, to deliver all manner of Knights who wish to come and Joust, each one of them of six lances, such as they will find within the tourney field, the which lances will be carried according to the standard.

The use of lists refers to:

(lists) historical palisades enclosing an area for a tournament.

An excerpt from Wikipedia's page on hastilude:

More informal jousting events would have several horsemen within the lists at once, where each waited to take up the challenge of another, although the aim remained for the joust to be a one-on-one duel.

My guess is that the two prizes were awarded to the best of those on the field and those off it (or waiting to get in, I suppose) respectively.

  • 2
    +1 The 20 within in effect issue a challenge to all comers, which is the formal excuse for the tournament. Jan 9, 2013 at 8:52

The 'within' and 'without' mean 'inside' and 'outside' respectively. 'Within' is still commonly used, but 'without' in the sense of 'outside' is maybe a little archaic now, though I have heard 'outwith' being used in that sense in Scotland.

within, n.

That which is within or inside (esp. fig.)

without, adv., prep., conj., and n.

Outside (or out of) the place mentioned or implied; esp. outside the house or room; out of doors.

outwith, prep., adv., and adj.

Now chiefly Sc.

A. prep.

1. Outside.

In a position or place outside of; situated or located outside of; beyond. Also fig.

  • I had never seen without for outside until I found "without the United States" in some tax instructions. Since then I've seen it in few other places and wonder if it is making a comeback. Jan 11, 2013 at 4:35

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