In the following example, is more full picture a kind of absolute phrase?
He has given us a lot, more full picture of dinosaurs of the East Coast.
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No, it's a comparative phrase. It implies that previous "pictures of dinosaurs of the East Coast" were not as full as this new picture, and that even this new picture is not a complete picture. There are still gaps that need filling in.
Rather than "a more full picture", "a more complete picture" is probably better. But the sentence you offer is ungrammatical:
He has given us a lot: a more complete picture of dinosaurs of the East Coast.
He has given us a more complete picture of dinosaurs of the East Coast.
He has given us a picture of dinosaurs of the East Coast that is a lot more complete.
all are grammatical and mean the same thing. Which is best is your choice. There may be some other sentence that you prefer, however. These aren't the only ways to say what you want to say.